–908. See Reiner, ‘L’attitude envers les proselytes,’ pp. 99–119.
15 Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi, Sefer Ra’aviah, ed. V. Aptowizer, 5 vols. Jerusalem
1983, 2008, Vol. 2, Megillah 549.
16 G. Porton, The Stranger Within Your Gates, Chicago 1994, pp. 194–195; M. Lavie,
‘“A Convert is Like a Newborn Child,”’ pp. 103–105; M. Lavee, ‘Converting
the Missionary Image of Abraham: Rabbinic Traditions Migrating from the
Land of Israel to Babylon,’ in: Abraham, the Nations, and the Hagarites: Jewish,
Christian, and Islamic Perspectives on Kinship with Abraham, eds. M. Goodman,
contamination that may linger in him as a result of the temptations he
faced, and only partly overcame, in Constantinople.
The blackness of Guy’s hair and skin, moreover, demonstrate
visually for the Duke, as they will for the audience later, another identity marker he assumes in his disguise: Guy implicitly marks himself as
a Saracen, or Muslim, by emphasising that the Saracen who raised his
234 Rebecca Wilcox
steed is his cousin. Thus Guy prepares the reader to associate blackness
with Islam and with infiltration. After all
parenthetically in the
Childress, ‘Between romance and legend’, p. 316.
Siege of Melayne 41
14 Shepherd, ‘Journee’, pp. 128, 129.
15 Suzanne Conklin Akbari, ‘Imagining Islam: the role of images in medieval depictions of Muslims’, Scripta Mediterranea, 19–20 (1998–99), 9–27.
16 Six Middle English Romances, ed. Mills, p. xiii.
17 Patrick Geary, ‘Humiliation of saints’, in Stephen Wilson (ed.), Saints and
their Cults: Studies in Religious Sociology, Folklore, and History (Cambridge,
1983), pp. 123–40. Hardman similarly notes the
turban’, in D. Blanks
(ed.), Images of the Other: Europe and the Muslim World Before 1700 (Cairo,
1997), pp. 39–54 for an informative account of the politics of turbans and
Turks’ heads in Renaissance England; Matar’s argument has clear implications for medieval representations of Islam and the Arab world.
14 Quoted during the 2001 Israeli election campaign in Independent on
Sunday, 28 January 2001; Jean Marie Le Pen, leader of France’s ultra
rightwing Front National, makes a similar claim: ‘Je mange du musulman
became a religion that influenced rulers and was dominant
organizationally, politically, and theologically throughout Europe, one that
Goldin, Apostasy and Jewish identity.indd 4
was victorious over Islam and that established the Crusader Kingdom of
Jerusalem. During each of these stages, the attitude of Judaism towards
those who converted to the rival religion was a clear indication of its
own self-perception and identity. The Jews were familiar with the view
that Christianity was the heir of Judaism and that it was the
The wall texts of a Percy family manuscript and the Poulys Daunce of St Paul’s Cathedral
65 Google’s most well-known virtual tour explores Abbey Road, https://
insideabbeyroad.withgoogle.com/en. In a more serious example of
the political and historical role virtual imagery like that provided by
Google Earth can play: at the time of the writing of this chapter, satellite imagery was used by the UN to assess the state of the late antique
ruins at Palmyra, much of which had been overtaken and demolished
by the Islamic State (ISIS) in 2016.
66 Mimi Sheller, ‘Virtual islands: mobilities, connectivity, and the new
Caribbean spatialities’. Small