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the capital. During the 1980s the influx of African immigrants to French urban centres generated a new and vibrant magical culture that has yet to be studied properly, but which seems to have fused to a certain extent with the ‘indigenous’ discourse on witchcraft and the practice of counter-magic. Central to this new magic service industry are the Islamic marabouts or cunning-folk from North and West Africa – Senegal in

in Witchcraft Continued
The parliamentary arena

challenge the democratic government, and its various institutions, and to preach against ethnic groups. Side by side, there were Arab parties, including the Islamic Movement, which openly objected to the existence of Israel as the State of the Jewish people. Of course, anti-democratic or ethnocentric expressions in Parliament are not auspicious phenomena in themselves, but the very fact that these parties gained representation in the context of a sustained democratic framework gives an indication of an ability to strike a balance between the imperative of affording

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations

confrontation, especially in view of the strong political lobby backing the settlers. 71 Gillon adds that the decision not to enforce the law against these offenders in effect opened a path toward the radicalisation of several members, eventually leading to the ‘Jewish Underground’, the most sophisticated Jewish terrorist organisation in Israeli history. Among other actions, its members were responsible for severely disabling the mayors of Ramallah and Nablus in the summer of 1980 by sabotaging their cars 72 and also for the attack on the Islamic College in Hebron about

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Open Access (free)

–908. See Reiner, ‘L’attitude envers les proselytes,’ pp. 99–119. 15 Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi, Sefer Ra’aviah, ed. V. Aptowizer, 5 vols. Jerusalem 1983, 2008, Vol. 2, Megillah 549. 16 G. Porton, The Stranger Within Your Gates, Chicago 1994, pp.  194–195; M. Lavie, ‘“A Convert is Like a Newborn Child,”’ pp. 103–105; M. Lavee, ‘Converting the Missionary Image of Abraham: Rabbinic Traditions Migrating from the Land of Israel to Babylon,’ in: Abraham, the Nations, and the Hagarites: Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Perspectives on Kinship with Abraham, eds. M. Goodman, G

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)

became a religion that influenced rulers and was dominant organizationally, politically, and theologically throughout Europe, one that Goldin, Apostasy and Jewish identity.indd 4 20/08/2014 12:34:42 Early beginnings 5 was victorious over Islam and that established the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. During each of these stages, the attitude of Judaism towards those who converted to the rival religion was a clear indication of its own self-perception and identity. The Jews were familiar with the view that Christianity was the heir of Judaism and that it was the

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe