This article discusses how Armenians have collected, displayed and exchanged the
bones of their murdered ancestors in formal and informal ceremonies of
remembrance in Dayr al-Zur, Syria – the final destination for hundreds of
thousands of Armenians during the deportations of 1915. These pilgrimages –
replete with overlapping secular and nationalist motifs – are a modern variant
of historical pilgrimage practices; yet these bones are more than relics. Bone
rituals, displays and vernacular memorials are enacted in spaces of memory that
lie outside of official state memorials, making unmarked sites of atrocity more
legible. Vernacular memorial practices are of particular interest as we consider
new archives for the history of the Armenian Genocide. The rehabilitation of
this historical site into public consciousness is particularly urgent, since the
Armenian Genocide Memorial Museum and Martyr’s Church at the centre of the
pilgrimage site were both destroyed by ISIS (Islamic State in Syria) in
scepticism and negative referenda in
Denmark and Ireland would tend to suggest? However, can the
European bicycle of integration remain upright unless it moves forward?
Should it be equipped with a ‘kick stand’? But is it any fun peddling a
22/9/03, 3:56 pm
Where is Europe heading?
bicycle that is not moving? Would a ‘standstill’ imposed on integration
not rapidly turn into its opposite, disintegration?
Christianity and Islam
Anyone who travelled across devastated Europe in 1648 must have
thought any reconciliation between Catholics and
a health team which went to test the vaccine in South Africa. 37 At the same time, the
Jama’atu Nasril Islam (JNI), the umbrella organisation for Muslims in
Nigeria, sent a team of their own experts to test the vaccine in Indian
laboratories. On 23 December 2003, the Minister of Health, Professor Eyitayo
Lambo, announced that the ‘Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) used in Nigeria for
immunisation, ‘had been found to be safe and free of anti
reasons put forward by the British as to why
they were unhappy to support the ZMA was that members of the Arab and
Indian communities principally claimed its services. This is intriguing.
Although the ethnic diversity of Zanzibar had been established over
centuries, and was acknowledged by the British in many of their other
policies (such as the decision to allow Islamic law to function in
multiculturalism as a neocolonising import from the United
States to Britain. Yet, too, in terms of the clash of civilisations
theory through which Naipaul currently interprets world history, it is a
policy ‘fostered by Islamic groups’. In 2001 he mocks the
policy as ‘multi-culti’, mobilising again, as with his
denunciation of Black Power politics, a belittling discourse of
redemptive desire and unreason, and
Webster, ‘Co-operatives and the State in Burma/Myanmar, 1900–2012: A Case-Study of Failed Top-Down Co-operative Development Models?’ in Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown and Justin Pierce (eds), Charities in the Non-Western World: The Development and Regulation of Indigenous and Islamic Charities (New York: Routledge, 2013), 65–87.
9 Robert Kane, The Industrial Resources of Ireland (Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1845), 423.
10 R.F. Foster, Modern Ireland, 1600–1972 (London: Penguin, 1989), 569.
–908. See Reiner, ‘L’attitude envers les proselytes,’ pp. 99–119.
15 Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi, Sefer Ra’aviah, ed. V. Aptowizer, 5 vols. Jerusalem
1983, 2008, Vol. 2, Megillah 549.
16 G. Porton, The Stranger Within Your Gates, Chicago 1994, pp. 194–195; M. Lavie,
‘“A Convert is Like a Newborn Child,”’ pp. 103–105; M. Lavee, ‘Converting
the Missionary Image of Abraham: Rabbinic Traditions Migrating from the
Land of Israel to Babylon,’ in: Abraham, the Nations, and the Hagarites: Jewish,
Christian, and Islamic Perspectives on Kinship with Abraham, eds. M. Goodman,
Italian were to grow by attracting established academics from other
less favoured universities. But this prospect was far from clear in
1981; Derek Latham, then a Reader at Manchester, reflected gloomily
on the vulnerability of his own subject, Arabic and Islamic studies,
whose strength lay in postgraduates, at a time when universities were
‘mainly viewed as institutions for the instruction of undergraduates’.
Universities, it now seemed, had been churning out in excessive
numbers the wrong kinds of graduate – the sort who produced nothing except paper and
Edward Wilmot Blyden, 1832–1912, born
Danish West Indies; studied theology in the United States, emigrated
to Liberia 1850 where he was active in politics; Liberian ambassador
to London. He advocated the return of Black people to Africa and
political unity and modernisation in West Africa. His best-known
work is Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race (1887
formal commitments to black emancipation. In later life he talked
much about the fact that his grandfather was a slave. He claimed, too,
Henry Sylvester-Williams (the inspirational figure who inaugurated the
first Pan-African Congress in London in 1900) to have been an uncle. His
father converted to Islam searching, it seems, for a means to efface the
inheritance of slavery. Certainly, we know that his father possessed an