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Simha Goldin

are ominously silent concerning the conquest of the Holy Land by Christians and the establishment of a Christian city in Jerusalem. From the viewpoint of twelfth-century Jewry, there was no point in publicizing this fact, which reinforced the powerful Christian theological claim that their victories and worldly success were proof that God had abandoned the Jewish people and now supported the Christian side. In reading Jewish sources from the twelfth century, one is hard put to find even an echo of the historical events which occurred in the Land of Israel. The

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
Simha Goldin

in the Mishnah, which emphasizes the difference of the proselyte within Jewish society. Moreover, in the framework of the Talmudic discussion regarding those things one must tell the prospective proselyte prior to his conversion, one of the amoraim, Rav Helbo, states that ‘converts are as difficult to Israel as a sore’—this, in explanation of the verse in Isaiah 14:1: ‘And aliens will join them and will cleave to the house of Jacob’ (b. Yevamot 47b). It may be that during the period of Rav Helbo, a Babylonian who immigrated to the Land of Israel during the first

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
Simha Goldin

not as part of the people of Israel; or, to use the language of the Talmud, ‘From this we conclude: one accepts sacrifices from among the sinners of Israel so that they may return as penitents, apart from the meshumad and one who pours out pagan libations and desecrates the Sabbath publicly.’10 Those who wished to join Judaism were received with a degree of suspicion as to their motivations, but a certain process and ceremonies were created by which they could be accepted into Judaism.11 At the basis of the Jewish theological perception lay the assumption that Jews

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Elisa Narin van Court

’) is preceded in Romans 11:15 by an equally significant statement concerning Jewish disbelief which adds another variable to the perception of the divided Jews: ‘For if the loss of them be the reconciliation of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?’ That is, Jewish disbelief is part of the Divine plan (‘that blindness in part has happened in Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles should come in’ (Romans 11:25)) – and once the world is reconciled under Christ, the conversion of the Jews, which is certain to follow, will augur the

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Simha Goldin

of Israel nor that of brotherhood; hence, it is forbidden to loan or borrow money from him at interest under any circumstance, just as his Jewish essence is not nullified with regard to matters of marriage. But R. Yitzhak is concerned that, were Rashi’s approach—i.e., that it is forbidden to loan money to the apostate on interest—to be accepted, the difference between the apostate and those who remained Jewish would be obscured; thus, in the consciousness of those who remained Jews, one who ‘sinned’ and became a Christian would continue to be perceived as a Jew. At

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Simha Goldin

taken by the Christians and raised as Christians. The rationale he offered himself was that, as a Christian, he would be able to safeguard his (Jewish) property, take care of his mother, and be close to his children and oversee their education. Nevertheless, at a certain moment, while he was alone in the synagogue opposite the Holy Ark, he understood that none of these reasons could compare to the commended form of Jewish behavior, which he summarizes in a sentence pregnant with significance: ‘I will repent, and be innocent and whole before the Lord God of Israel

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
Simha Goldin

and then returned to their Judaism by using identical terms for both. As against the halakhic argument invoked by R. Yitzhak, R. Shmuel writes quite simply, in a brief sentence, ‘I do not know who allowed him to see daughters of Israel as presumed to be harlots.’16 Another respondent, R. David ben Shealtiel, criticized primarily the halakhic viewpoint of R. Yitzhak Or Zaru’a. He reiterated what Rabbenu Hannanel had already explained, that the precedents brought in the Talmud relate, in their own time (i.e., the Middle Ages), only to those women married to kohanim

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
The change in mentality
Simha Goldin

deliberately gives himself an erection’ (maksheh atzmo la-da’at) as tantamount to ‘apostate.’ R. Ami, in the Talmud, describes the type who becomes addicted to the pleasures of the flesh: ‘For thus is the guile of the Evil Urge: today it says to you ‘Do this,’ and he does so, and tomorrow it says ‘Go worship idols,’ and he goes and worships them.’ R. Ami, who lived in the Land of Israel during the third century, refers to this type as a ‘transgressor’; R. Yitzhak ben Moshe in thirteenth-century Christian Europe refers to him as ‘an apostate.’4 The severest attitude is

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Nicola McDonald

, imaginatively at least, when, transformed into something edible, he is ingested. In the endless reiteration of animosity, Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon, in a candid moment during the 2001 election campaign, provides a salutary reminder that the line between the literal and the metaphoric is almost imperceptible: ‘I am known as someone who eats Arabs for breakfast.’14 Eating people then has very little to do with conventional morality, as ‘wrong’ implies; it is rather part – a legitimated one at that – of the complex way in which we, as individuals and communities

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Roberta Frank

. 42 J. R. R. Tolkien, ‘ Beowulf : the monsters and the critics’, Sir Israel Gollancz Memorial Lecture, Proceedings of the British Academy , 22 (1936), 245–95. 43 J. R. R. Tolkien, Beowulf: a translation and commentary , ed. Christopher Tolkien (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014). 44

in Dating Beowulf