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, 393 – 410 . Cadwell , P. ( 2016 ), ‘ A Place for Translation Technologies in Disaster Settings: The Case of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake ’, in O’Hagan , M. and Zhang , Q. (eds), Conflict and Communication: A Changing Asia in a Globalising World ( New York : Nova

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societies – intervention in the political, economic and social realms, which requires a linking of security actors in theory and in practice. The history and nature of the development-security nexus The rebuilding of Europe and Japan following the world wars reveals a historical merging of international security and development goals which cautions against treating the merger of development and security, and therefore its role in liberal peacebuilding, as an entirely new or innovative phenomenon (Duffield, 2001; 2005). However, despite there being substantial historical

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, Japan, Croatia, Montenegro and Macedonia following suit within months. As of 2013 many states have yet to recognise Kosovo and recognition at the UN and the EU is doubtful in the short to medium term due to the stance of states such as Russia and Spain. Nonetheless, Kosovo formally joined the IMF and World Bank in 2009, setting it on a clear path to statehood despite the contestations of many actors. With the declaration of independence by Kosovo’s elected government, UNMIK’s role in the territory was greatly diminished and the power of 82 4062 building a peace

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strategic structures to globalized economic structures. A cursory analysis of the Freedom House ratings for states in the region gives some indication of the problems of considering the region as a whole (see Table 11.1). At one extreme we have the established democracy of Japan – though even here, the transition from managed factionalism within the structure of rule by the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) to conflictual factionalism and political fragmentation in the post-LDP coalition governments has created new challenges to democratic politics. There is then a second

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: Sudbury Valley School, Massachusetts; the School of Self-Determination, Moscow; Tokyo Shure, Japan; le Centre Energie, Madagascar; Krätzä, Berlin; Tamariki, Christchurch, New Zealand; Highfield Junior School, Plymouth, England; la Fundación Educativa Pestalozzi, Quito, Ecuador; Sands School, Ashburton, England; the Democratic School of Hadera, Israel; Dr. Albizo Campos Puerto Rican High School, Chicago; the Butterflies organisation for street and working children, Delhi; Moo Baan Dek children’s village, Thailand. I have met people from all these places, and visited all

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. Events, internal and external, inevitably exert pressure on the balance of these individualist and group tendencies. Engagement in foreign conflicts has commonly had integrative effects – they have heightened Americans’ sense of UNITED STATES 239 shared national identity – though in the long term such interventions have also effected profound social and political changes. For instance, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, in 1941, and the terrorist bombing of the World Trade Center and Pentagon, in 2001, had integrative effects: Americans disregarded differences

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new batch of observer applications, including China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore and the European Union, became a late-​night, high-​political affair prior to the end of the Swedish chairmanship ministerial meeting in Kiruna (2013). Some states, namely Norway and Denmark, publicly went out with their support for the impending applications early on, even flagging their support for some of their Arctic strategies (e.g. MFA, Norway, 2011: 78). Others, such as the USA, Canada and Russia were taciturn. Interviews conducted with decision-​makers in 2013 indicated that

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story of humanity in the global age. Nok is a woman raised in rural Thailand and a seemingly willful participant in her own trafficking to Japan. According to her own account, her father was deeply in debt to credit and agricultural cooperatives because the money the family made from rice farming was insufficient to repay the interest, let alone the principal. In this predicament, Nok’s older sister had agreed to be trafficked to Japan in return for paying a debt of 3.5 million yen (about $34,000) to her traffickers. She worked in the sex industry and eventually paid

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