experienced this, and some have dared to describe this blindness. One was Jack
London, the famous American writer sent to Korea to cover the Russo-Japanese war in
1904, who wrote, confused, of ‘black moving specks’, the
‘hubbub’, in short, ‘a war of ghosts’ (quoted in Audouin-Rouzeau, 2008 : 244). And when
Le Figaro sent special correspondent Tanguy Berthemet to
Sévaré (Mali) as France began its 2013 military operation (Operation
Serval), he reported: ‘There is a war in
appears humane. Technology then is not anti-human. It is the only thing that might save us. A point made by the scientist Richard Gatling, who, trying to justify his invention of the gun, noted: ‘If war was made more terrible, it would have a tendency to keep peace among the nations of the earth.’ The same redemptive narrative would be promulgated by those responsible for the atrocious nuclear assault on Japan, in 1945.
The tragedy, however, is that the more we seek to regulate or civilise violence by giving ourselves over to the technological account of human
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna
Technologies in Disaster Settings: The Case of the 2011 Great
East Japan Earthquake ’, in
Conflict and Communication: A Changing Asia in a Globalising
World ( New York :
Nova Science Publishers ),
169 – 94 .
Cadwell , P
), from the United States (a 27.9 percent decline, from 3.6 billion dollars to 2.6 billion), from the UK (from 2.3 billion dollars to 1.8 billion, a 23.5 percent decline), and from Japan (from 1.8 billion dollars to 1.2 billion, a 34.7 percent decline). Altogether, Turkey’s imports in 1998 amounted to close on 39 billion dollars; in 1999 it declined to 32.5 billion, a 16.5 percent decline.
The export balance shows slightly better results. It is indicative of the strength of the major trend in the Turkish economy in the 1990s, namely, the increase
under the Black Sea, carrying Siberian gas to Turkey’s Black Sea port of Samson and from there to Ankara. The pipeline, to be built by an international consortium of French, Italian, Japanese and Russian energy companies, at the cost of 3.2 billion dollars, was to be completed by 2010. 7 Small wonder its opponents ridiculed the entire scheme, labeling it derisively, “Operation Blue Dream.” Second, while reducing Turkey reliance on oil, it increased Turkey’s dependence on Russian gas. Turkey already imported 68 percent of its gas from Russia. In 1999 it was importing
4 extracting economic and political concessions from the West and Japan, in return for Turkey’ s aid during the crisis;
5 weakening Iraq without a single Turkish soldier actually taking part in the fighting or crossing into Iraq.
The annals of this century show few examples of a country that has succeeded, in the course of over seventy years, in achieving its regional objectives without its armed forces becoming embroiled in combat. Having contrived to do so ever since the 1920s – the 1974
to promote a policy of pan-Kazakhism, rather than pan-Turkism: it encourages expatriate Kazakhs to return home, in order to alter the demographic balance. 73
The republics’ needs are estimated in the range of 250 billion dollars. Since Russia is in no position to support them economically, the republics turn for assistance elsewhere, to places like Europe, the United States, Japan and China. However, the West, although regarded as an ideal model, is remote – culturally and geographically – and it will not invest its monies in the risky
Fourteenth, which has at its disposal over 100 first-class tanks, approximately 100 personnel carriers cum fighting vehicles, and self-propelled artillery. Then there is the indigenous Turkish Cypriot force numbering some 5,000 men, who serve as light infantry. 47 According to Greece, the Turkish expeditionary force has its own agenda, often quite different and as a rule more hard line than Ankara’s. Enjoying a great deal of leeway, the Eleventh Army Corps, Greece inveighs, behave in much the same way as the Japanese did in Manchuko during the 1930s. 48
upon Israeli exports to Turkey and their competitiveness with the European products. This was partly rectified when the Turkish–Israeli free trade zone came into effect. 95
Israeli tourism to Turkey is likewise a flourishing Turkish export sector, so is the joint venture of marketing Turkey and Israel together to tourists from Japan and the United States. Some 350,000 Israelis have visited Turkey annually since 1994 – altogether, 15 percent of the Israelis who took trips abroad chose Turkey – spending an average of 1,000 dollars per head, while
, painfully and destructively to traditional society, the elements of a protostate. Coffee was a productive cash crop, but in this case the highly dispersed pattern of indigenous social and political life and the self-supporting native economy were suited well enough to the purposes of the colonisers.
Portuguese administration returned to East Timor after being displaced by the Japanese during the Second World War. The Lisbon Government was an authoritarian regime, and the character of its colonial administration reflected this. Portugal had been