Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell and Dónal P. O’Mathúna
393 – 410 .
P. ( 2016 ), ‘ A Place for
Translation Technologies in Disaster Settings: The Case of the 2011 Great
East Japan Earthquake ’, in
Conflict and Communication: A Changing Asia in a Globalising
World ( New York :
, painfully and destructively to traditional society, the elements of a protostate. Coffee was a productive cash crop, but in this case the highly dispersed pattern of indigenous social and political life and the self-supporting native economy were suited well enough to the purposes of the colonisers.
Portuguese administration returned to East Timor after being displaced by the Japanese during the Second World War. The Lisbon Government was an authoritarian regime, and the character of its colonial administration reflected this. Portugal had been
), from the United States (a 27.9 percent decline, from 3.6 billion dollars to 2.6 billion), from the UK (from 2.3 billion dollars to 1.8 billion, a 23.5 percent decline), and from Japan (from 1.8 billion dollars to 1.2 billion, a 34.7 percent decline). Altogether, Turkey’s imports in 1998 amounted to close on 39 billion dollars; in 1999 it declined to 32.5 billion, a 16.5 percent decline.
The export balance shows slightly better results. It is indicative of the strength of the major trend in the Turkish economy in the 1990s, namely, the increase
expected of each other’ (Gong 1984 : viii,
15). If subjects met and adhered to them – Gong charts how
particular countries navigated, managed and inculcated the standard,
sometimes successfully (Japan and Siam) and sometimes not (the
Ottoman Empire and China) – they theoretically could be granted full
recognition and hence admission into the European society of
after 1990 had largely confounded
the expectations of the neo-realists and, in particular, the emphasis
on the resurgence of German military power and unilateralism. Thus,
seeking an alternative and more authentic form of explanation, scholars
Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd
Germany and the use of force
have capitalised on the growing body of culture-inspired theories and
In 1998 Thomas U. Berger considered national security policies in
both Germany and Japan through a culturalist perspective in a major
under the Black Sea, carrying Siberian gas to Turkey’s Black Sea port of Samson and from there to Ankara. The pipeline, to be built by an international consortium of French, Italian, Japanese and Russian energy companies, at the cost of 3.2 billion dollars, was to be completed by 2010. 7 Small wonder its opponents ridiculed the entire scheme, labeling it derisively, “Operation Blue Dream.” Second, while reducing Turkey reliance on oil, it increased Turkey’s dependence on Russian gas. Turkey already imported 68 percent of its gas from Russia. In 1999 it was importing
economic competition from Europe and Japan which were less willing than heretofore to defer to the US. Indeed, a Pentagon planning document in the late 1980s discussed the need for the US to defend its hegemonic power from such competitors. At a time when some of the other ingredients of US economic hegemony, such as financial assets and trading capacity, had declined, control of Middle East oil, including petrodollar recycling, was an all-the-more crucial instrument of hegemony and source of leverage over economic competitors.
It is no accident
3 Kerry Longhurst (2003) ‘Why Aren’t the Germans Debating the Draft?’,
German Politics, vol. 12, no. 2 (August), pp. 147–65.
4 Geoﬀrey van Orden (1991) ‘The Bundeswehr in Transition’, Survival, vol.
33 ( July–August), p. 364.
5 John, S. Duﬃeld (1998) World Power Forsaken: Political Culture, International Institutions, and German Security Policy After Uniﬁcation (Stanford,
CA: Stanford University Press), p. 239.
6 Thomas U. Berger (1998) Cultures of Antimilitarism: National Security in
Germany and Japan (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press),
4 extracting economic and political concessions from the West and Japan, in return for Turkey’ s aid during the crisis;
5 weakening Iraq without a single Turkish soldier actually taking part in the fighting or crossing into Iraq.
The annals of this century show few examples of a country that has succeeded, in the course of over seventy years, in achieving its regional objectives without its armed forces becoming embroiled in combat. Having contrived to do so ever since the 1920s – the 1974
Japanese competition, precipitate a recycling of petrodollars through US banks, thereby restoring declining American control of world financial resources, and stimulate American exports to the oil producers. Western consumers and workers certainly did suffer from the oil price increases but the most powerful US corporations – the oil companies, banks and arms exporters – made huge profits from them or from the recycling of petrodollars. And US oil producers were the largest funders of the Republican Party and the Nixon, Reagan and two Bush campaigns (Kubursi and Mansur