Joy Molina Mirasol, Felix S. Mirasol, Estela C. Itaas Jr., and Benjamin Maputi
Enhancing local policymakers’ capacity
in environmental governance in the
Joy Molina Mirasol, Felix S. Mirasol, Jr., Estela C. Itaas and Benjamin Maputi
The forest land in the province of Bukidnon, Philippines, is continuously declining
in terms of its economic and environmental capacity. Forest destruction by timber
poachers and conversion of forest land for agriculture are rising to an alarming
level, leaving the remaining forest cover significantly below the desired 45 percent
cover to sustain its services. Such decline and
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas
Burkle , F. M.
Martone , G.
Greenough , P.
G. ( 2013 ), ‘ The Changing Face
of Humanitarian Crises’ , The Brown Journal of
World Affairs , 20 : 11 ,
This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen
science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth
age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within
environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists
have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging
in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics
has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of
science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living
with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary
contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American
hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental
controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,”
citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding
toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory
environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing,
witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for
seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of
engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of
critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will
also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the
book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues,
as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen
science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors
in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from
emerging scholars and community activists.
demonstrating at Bolotnaya Square on 10 December were communists calling
to be ‘given back their city’. This re-emerged in 2013,
with a study that suggested that the KPRF had even defeated UR in
December 2011. 17
The other aspect of this shift to the political left were
the results of the centre-left Just Russia (JR) party. Created in 2006
as a coalition of three parties, some suggest that it was created by the
fit’ (see Pritchard Jr. et al. 1998:14) does not favour
resource management patterns and practices compatible with
ecologically rational and sustainable governance.
This has led some to recommend the break-up of central
government in favour of self-governing, self-sufficient bio-regions
(see Sale 1984a and b). Apart from the somewhat astonishing
neglect of the value of individual autonomy in certain proposals,
one could muster empirical and instrumental counterarguments.
Natural regions and areas are today so interpenetrated and transgressed by linked human
opportunity to offer amendments to legislation. The motivation behind such amendments can vary. If different versions
of the same bill emerge from the House and Senate, it is often
necessary to call a House-Senate Conference to iron out the
differences before the bill can be sent to the White House for
the President’s signature.
1 P. F. Boller Jr., Congressional Anecdotes (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1991), p. 181.
2000; Klinkner and Smith 1998; Kryder
2000; Layton 2000; Plummer 1996; Von Eschen 1997). The
main object of this scrutiny was the United States’ egregious treatment of African Americans and other minorities.
(Already in 1919, Woodrow Wilson’s articulation of his
14-point programme for a new world order was challenged
by Black Americans setting out their 14-point programme for
the achievement of democracy at home (Rosenberg 1999).)
Writing from jail in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963, Martin
Luther King Jr. angrily declared: ‘we have waited for more
than 340 years for our
of Shell’s turnabout from a reactive to a proactive company.
Additionally, it is difficult to understand on the basis of the CA
and DP models why ExxonMobil did not modify its reactive strategy in the four-year period from the US’s signing of the Kyoto
Protocol until Bush Jr was elected president.
In this chapter, we shift our focus from the domestic to the
international level. To what extent can the international climate
regime explain the strategies chosen by the oil industry? Climate
change is a global problem partly caused by global actors
usual’ scenario to reach the Kyoto target.23 However, the Senate
would have to ratify the Kyoto Protocol before it could be viewed
as a part of US policy (see chapter 6).
Four years later, in January 2001, the former Texas governor
George W. Bush was elected president. In March 2001, Bush Jr
declared that the Kyoto Protocol was unacceptable because it
would harm the US economy and because it failed to hold developing countries to strict emission limits. In February 2002, Bush
unveiled proposals for a voluntary scheme to curb GHG emissions.24 This represented a
Congressional Research Service, Membership of the 107th Congress: A
Profile, order code: RS20760, p. 3.
4 D. R. Mayhew, Congress: The Electoral Connection (New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1974).
5 Ibid, pp. 16–17.
6 R. F. Fenno Jr. Congressmen in Committees (Boston: Little, Brown,
7 W. Schiller, Partners and Rivals (Princeton: Princeton University Press,
8 See N. Ornstein, T. Mann and M. Malbin (eds.), Vital Statistics on
Congress, 1999–2000 (Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute,
9 Figure from Rasmussen Research; supplied at www