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Yalta farewell; how new a world?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

investment. The EU also agreed, in 1992, on the ambitious Maastricht Treaty on European Union, foreseeing, especially, an Economic and Monetary Union (a single currency) by the end of the decade and a common foreign and security policy. MUP_Torbion_05_Ch5 71 22/9/03, 12:38 pm 72 Destination Europe The disintegration of Yugoslavia beginning in 1990, and the several wars it led to, posed serious challenges to the EU and NATO, apart from signifying a tragedy for the people of the region. A further challenge to the EU came with an unexpected Danish referendum ‘no’ to the

in Destination Europe
Towards a union or not?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

body of persons or states joined or associated together for some common purpose or action; an association, league, or society’; ‘a number of states or provinces united together or incorporated into one legislative confederacy, a confederation or federation; especially the United States of America’. It will not be altogether easy to determine which of these definitions most closely fit the European Union. But the reader will agree that they are all rather far-reaching. The 1993 Maastricht Treaty on European Union was the first to state that the institution, at least

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

-country-one-vote’ principle in the Council of Ministers. The bigger had hoped for a weighted voting system based on population, but the smaller put up successful resistance. The Common Foreign and Security Policy vaguely set out in the Maastricht Treaty was left nearly in the same embryonic stage in which it had found itself previously. The Amsterdam Treaty also saw procedural simplifications in the complicated decision-making process, the creation of a joint planning body, and a raising of the status of the Secretary General of the EU Council of Ministers. One innovation of the Amsterdam

in Destination Europe
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Recovery and hubris; effervescence in the East
Kjell M. Torbiörn

summit in Milan in June 1985. It led to the Single European Act (SEA), adopted in 1986, which entered into force in 1987. The Single European Act is a complicated treaty (although less so than its successor, the 1992 Maastricht Treaty on European Union). The most important parts are not those by which the competencies of, and interplay among, the EC’s organs were being modified.10 Rather, it was this one article, 8.A, which was incorporated so as to amend the founding EEC Rome Treaty: ‘The Community shall adopt measures with the aim of progressively establishing the

in Destination Europe
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The new Europe takes shape
Kjell M. Torbiörn

would apply nearly forty years later in the lead-up to the Maastricht Treaty.’ Preceding Denmark’s and Norway’s application for EEC membership, these countries had, together with Sweden and Finland, tried to form a Nordic customs union, NORDEK. It never saw the light of day, however, as the parties could not agree on a common external tariff, Denmark and Norway were already eyeing the EEC, and the Finns were worried about the Soviet reaction. Nordic co-operation between Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland had already for some time been pursued within the

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

-Pacific Economic Forum, or APEC). The tide was thus firmly in the direction of freer trade, the prime motor being technological change and foreign investment, mainly through multinational companies. Knocking on the EU’s door: the Austrian, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish candidatures The Treaty on European Union, commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty, entered into force in November 1993. However, this was only after a second, this time positive, Danish referendum (and considerable concessions to Denmark by the other EU members); a year-long ratification battle in the British

in Destination Europe
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Kjell M. Torbiörn

, north-east France, south-west Germany, Switzerland and northern Italy – to include Berlin, Budapest, Warsaw, Prague, Vienna and other economic centres in the region. The late French President Mitterrand presumably foresaw the eastward shift in 1989, when he tried to prevent or at least considerably delay German unification and exacted the country’s participation in the Maastricht Treaty and especially the EMU as a price for ‘allowing’ unification to take place. Thus in December 1989 he issued a joint declaration with President Gorbachev stating that border changes

in Destination Europe