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Richard Parrish

Treaty came as a surprise despite the prevailing political climate in which Amsterdam was negotiated. Following the traumatic ratification of the Maastricht Treaty, it was widely expected that the EU would adopt measures in the new Treaty that would attempt to bring Europe’s citizen’s closer to the EU. Sport was considered one such issue through which the EU could achieve this objective. Despite this, sport was not mentioned in draft versions of the Treaty and was not included on the formal agenda of the Reflection Group. It was reported that when challenged on the

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Richard Parrish

public opposition to the Maastricht Treaty. The Danes rejected the Treaty in a referendum and over 49 per cent of French voters rejected it. The British government was forced to call a vote of no confidence to pass the Maastricht Bill through Parliament. In short, the lack of popular support for integration was limiting the ability of governments and the EU more generally to realise their political policy objectives. The sense of remoteness from the EU felt by many of Europe’s citizens therefore needed political attention. The essentially economic approach to sport

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Richard Parrish

the Maastricht Treaty stemmed directly from their concern over the ECJ’s ruling in Barber.7 The Protocol has subsequently affected ECJ decision making in this field. The member states possess various options for safeguarding sports structures within the legal framework of the Treaty. A Barber style protocol 78 Sports law and policy in the European Union approach is one method. In addition, the member states could amend the Treaty itself through inserting an Article for sport or by exempting sport from individual passages within the Treaty. These powerful

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Richard Parrish

of the single European currency. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty was a turning point for the EU. The completion of the SEM and the collapse of Communism offered the EU an opportunity to push for the launch of the single currency. However, the legitimacy question had not been tackled, potentially calling into question the viability of major EU projects such as the launching of a new currency. The Treaty adopted a series of measures designed to confront the legitimacy question. The Treaty expanded its range of social and cultural activities by granting a new legal base

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Richard Parrish

de-emphasising state actors. As such, although a move towards some kind of supranational political integration could be detected, the process was unpredictable, depending in large part on the calculations of self interest made by the member states. From an internal perspective the relationship between the Single European Act, the Maastricht Treaty and the Amsterdam Treaty can be functionally examined. Externally however the collapse of Communism and the re-unification of Germany point to an equally persuasive set of dynamics. The danger is that spillover becomes a

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Richard Parrish

legislation agreed by the Council of Ministers represent the most formal method, although political pressure can be imparted on the ECJ through soft law measures. Political Declarations released as annexes to Treaties or in the form Presidency Conclusions are often influential. In the case of pension rights, the member states added a protocol (the Barber Protocol) to the Maastricht Treaty preventing the retroactive application of the ruling. It has been noted that following the protocol, the ECJ ‘moderated its activism in this area’ (Hix 1999: 128). • ECJ

in Sports law and policy in the European Union