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By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
Mike Huggins

wage-earners in Interwar Britain (London: Woburn Press, 1995). 33 Jonathan Rose, The intellectual life of the British working classes (Yale: Yale University Press, 2001). 34 McKibbin, Classes and cultures, p. 371. 35 Pierre Bourdieu, ‘The aristocracy of culture’, Media, culture and society, 2:3 (1980), 235–53. 36 McKibbin, Classes and cultures, p. 371. 37 Sidney Galtrey, Memoirs of a racing journalist (London: Hutchinson, 1934), p. 10.

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Charlotte Dale

, Bedside Seductions:  Nursing and the Victorian Imagination, 1830–1880 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998), among others. 78 Nurses during the Anglo-Boer War 26 J. Hallam, Nursing the Image:  Media, Culture and Professional Identity (London: Routledge, 2000), p. 20. 27 P. Levine, Victorian Feminism 1850–1900 (London:  Hutchinson Education, 1987), p.  129; T.  M. Group and J.  I. Roberts, Nursing, Physician Control, and the Medical Monopoly: Historical Perspectives on Gendered Inequality in Roles, Rights, and Range of Practice (Bloomington, IN:  Indiana University Press

in Colonial caring
Jane Brooks

MacCormick. Released 27 March 1956, Ealing Studios. The film follows the lives of five student nurses in the young NHS. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0050428/ [accessed 28 September 2016]. 50 Julia Hallam identifies this film as one in which the nurse’s role as patient carer is subordinated to nurse as the one who cares for the male doctor, thereby playing into post-­war tropes of a domesticity. Nevertheless, as Hallam argues, ‘the deep happiness to be found in nursing is that of being in service’. Julia Hallam, Nursing the Image: Media, Culture and Professional Identity

in Negotiating nursing
Jane Brooks

Times (1  December 1945): 801. 89 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Coming ­home – ­Army nurses think of demobilisation’, Nursing Times (16 February 1946): 127. 90 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Nursing goes forward’, Nursing Times (17 November 1945): 751. Italics in the original. 91 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: For the good of all’, 41–2. 92 Starns, Nurses at War, 150. 93 Karen Flynn, ‘Proletarianization, professionalization and Caribbean immigrant nurses’, Canadian Woman Studies 18, 1 (1998): 57–60; Julia Hallam, Nursing the Image: Media, Culture and Professional Identity (London

in Negotiating nursing
Mike Huggins

that in the 1970s those who claimed to use skill, usually male, were far more likely to read both racing pages and the specialist racing press. See D. M. Downes, B. P. Davies, M. E. David and P. Stone, Gambling, work and leisure: a study across three areas (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976), p. 136. Philip Corrigan and Paul Willis, ‘Cultural forms and class mediations’, Media, culture and society, 2:3 (1980), 306. 95 96 Horseracing and the British, 1919–39 28 See Downes et al., Gambling, work and leisure, p. 24. 29 Ross McKibbin, Classes and cultures

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39