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, constitutional changes increased Nigerian self-governance, and in 1960 the country obtained independence, albeit an unstable one.1 Political tensions and ethnic and religious differences led to the civil war that began in 1967 when the southeastern area attempted to secede to form the Republic of Biafra. During the Nigerian civil war, Catholic mission hospitals became sites for a shift in the understanding of nursing and medical practices as missionaries worked to care for survivors of violence. After the war, a dominant role for Nigerians began in Catholic healthcare missions

in Colonial caring
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30

6 Working towards health, Christianity and democracy: American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–301 Winifred C. Connerton At the turn of the twentieth century American nurses went to Puerto Rico as members of the Army Nurse Corps, as colonial service workers and as Protestant missionaries. Though the nurses went as members of very different organisations they all espoused similar messages about America, Christianity and trained nursing. This chapter explores the overlapping messages of Protestant missionaries and of the United States (US

in Colonial caring
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A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Editors: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.

Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)

inexperienced [and] we have experienced a crisis due to lack of nurses and this happens very often’.36 When the Italo-Ethiopian War was about to break out, Italian Catholic missionary fathers and nuns of the Consolata missions of Turin were based in Ethiopia. Thanks to the good relationship established with Empress Zauditù and Ras Tafari (the future Emperor Haile Selassie), they were supported by the National Association for the Assistance of Italian Catholic Missionaries and the Anti-Slavery Society in Italy, and managed to establish ten mission stations, thirty-six schools

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Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing

issues of race and ethnicity associated with segregation and ‘protection’. The discussions are then taken further into the twentieth century for the final third of the book, reflecting upon Italian colonialism in Ethiopia, guerrilla nursing in China by British and American nurses and Irish Catholic missionary doctors and nurses working in colonial and post-colonial Nigeria. In these chapters, religion and humanitarianism – as well as nursing in the face of stark inhumanity – become part of the equation, whilst relationships between colonised and colonisers is explored

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more hospitals, more outpatient clinics, more doctors, more and better-qualified nurses were required. Now that the government took responsibility for the health of all civilians  – European and Indonesians alike  – an independent Civil Medical Service (CMS) was founded in 1911. Private enterprise The government in the Dutch East Indies had so far adopted a somewhat guarded position on mission and missionary work, particularly in Islamic areas. At the time of the Ethical Policy this position changed. Missionary work and missions had been found to be beneficial in

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. They trained nurses who wanted not only to work in healthcare but also to serve their country. Protestant missionaries set up hospitals and training schools on the island in part to undermine the position of the Catholic Church. Thus in this case, for better or for worse, nurses served to transform healthcare and society. In Australia, the goal was to ‘civilise’ the Aboriginals, who were described as ‘savages’. Aboriginal healthcare and midwifery practices were discounted. With the presence of plague in Hong Kong, British doctors and nurses insisted that only

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Guerrilla nursing with the Friends Ambulance Unit, 1946–48

tables were covered, and Margaret joined the men for a game of poker. More frequently, she found quiet refuge from her gruelling workdays in the FAU’s daily worship, or reading the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore in the sunshine.50 Jay’s return to work by her side and his approval − ‘that things in the hospital seem to be better co-ordinated’ – made ‘living worth while in all respects’.51 Racial boundaries remained intact within the mission walls, however. Both Hughes and Stanley disapproved of the Honan missionaries’ lavish lifestyles and housing and discriminatory

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, Charles Nicolle, Pasteur's Imperial Missionary: Typhus and Tunisia (New York: Rochester University Press, 2006). 19 M. Cueto (ed.), Missionaries of Science: The Rockefeller Foundation and Latin America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994). See also C. Abel, ‘External Philanthropy and Domestic Change in Colombian Health Care

in The politics of vaccination
Emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny

inserting it into the gun, the sepoys viewed this as a surreptitious means of either forcing them to break their caste or defile their religion.4 However, there were a number of additional contributing factors, and the situation was more complex than traditional narratives have asserted, with the annexation of Oudh in 1856 and the general increase in Christian missionary activity in India also causing localised and more general native discontentment respectively. Jane Robinson provides evidence that at Lucknow the cause of rebellion had also been medical in origin

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