2012 ). Habsburg authorities in Bosnia-Herzegovina, for instance, tackled what they perceived as an Ottoman legacy of endemic backwardness through extensive public health programmes. The Czech-, Russian- and Polish-speaking, Swiss-trained women physicians they hired to visit Muslimwomen in ‘the harems’ (as per one 1903 public health report) took British women doctors' work in the gender-segregated Indian ‘zenana’ as a model, making Bosnia-Herzegovina ‘the object of a characteristically colonial discourse’ (Fuchs 2011 : 76, 85; see Burton 1996 ). Habsburg
see Janković ( 2012 ).
Sixteen-year-old Kesinović and fifteen-year-old Selimović, whose refugee parents settled in Austria in 1992–5, travelled to Syria in 2014, becoming what Western media frequently called ‘poster girls’ for the ISIS propaganda strategy of promising very young Muslimwomen empowerment and fulfilment by separating from their families, settling in ISIS territory, marrying jihadis and raising children who would