Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

A new NATO 169 8 A new NATO The Great role of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible. … Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns … ’Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent Alliances, with any portion of the foreign world. (George Washington)1 Summary The disappearance of the Soviet

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
The political and economic growth of a continent

This study interprets and interrelates the major political, economic and security developments in Europe – including transatlantic relations – from the end of World War II up until the present time, and looks ahead to how the continent may evolve politically in the future. It weaves all the different strands of European events together into a single picture that gives the reader a deep understanding of the continent, and of its current and future challenges. The first chapters trace European reconstruction and political, economic and security developments – both in the East and in the West – leading up to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Later chapters examine the European Union's reform efforts, enlargement, movement to a single currency and emerging security role; the political and economic changes in central and Eastern Europe, including Russia; the break up of Yugoslavia and the wars that ensued; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)'s enlargement and search for a new mission. Final chapters deal with forces affecting Europe's future, such as terrorism, nationalism, religion, demographic trends and globalisation.

Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

limits their scope. (Henry Kissinger)1 Summary As the EU and NATO enlarge, prospects for overall economic growth and peace are good, even if tensions both within and without the enlarged circle of EU and NATO member states could cloud the picture, as over Iraq in 2003. Prospects for peace and prosperity improved in South-Eastern Europe under a Stability Pact for the region, involving major international assistance. Continuing EU and NATO enlargement will mean an eastward shift of Europe’s ‘centre of gravity’, with a major role for Germany. That country is, however

in Destination Europe
A twenty-first century trial?
Dominic McGoldrick

the relevance, if any, of the NATO air campaign in Kosovo.16 They are provided with copies of all the material provided to Milosevic and other specified documents, but they are not provided with any filings made on an ex parte basis. Milosevic protested at the appointment of the amici, regarding them simply as part of the ICTY and an expression of what he ironically termed the ‘Hague fair play’. In October 2000, Wladimiroff ’s appointment was revoked after Milosevic complained that Wladimiroff had written articles that gave rise to a reasonable perception of bias

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

ratification of the US–Russia START I Treaty reducing intercontinental nuclear missiles; the entry into force of the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty limiting troop levels all over Europe; and NATO’s Partnership for Peace programme, also including Russia. The European Union’s Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) collapsed in 1993 but was revived in a more flexible form, permitting plans for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) to proceed. The conclusion of the Uruguay Round and the establishment in 1995 of the World Trade Organisation meant a major push for Europe toward

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Europe’s ‘zero hour’
Kjell M. Torbiörn

planning of the economy. Europe’s two halves grew increasingly apart and a ‘Cold War’ ensued. The establishment of NATO under US leadership in 1949 confirmed this division and extended it to the security field. A new departure The fact that serious European co-operation, even integration, started shortly after World War II was not self-evident or an automatic result of what had preceded. If things had gone slightly differently, it might not have taken place at all. MUP_Torbion_01_Ch1 1 22/9/03, 12:29 pm 2 Destination Europe On the other hand, it could hardly have

in Destination Europe
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Yalta farewell; how new a world?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

from a planned to a market economy ranging from ‘shock therapy’ to more gradual reform. Western international organisations – including the EU, the Council of Europe and NATO – followed suit with various co-operation and association agreements. The hope of the countries concerned for a new Marshall Plan was not met, but a new European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was meant to fulfil a similar function. The European Union in 1993 concluded a European Economic Area (EEA) agreement with various EFTA countries, tying them closer to it in the areas of trade and

in Destination Europe
Harold Wilson, Lyndon B. Johnson and Anglo-American relations ‘at the summit’, 1964–68
Author:

This book is based mainly on government sources, namely material from the White House, State Department, Foreign Office (FO), Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), Prime Minister's Office (PREM) and Cabinet (CAB). Private papers consulted include those of Harold Wilson, Foreign Secretary George Brown and Undersecretary of State George Ball. The book explores a period of the Wilson-Johnson relationship. It considers the seven weeks from Wilson's election until he went to see Lyndon B. Johnson on 7-9 December, a formative period in which Britain cultivated American financial support and which saw pre-summit diplomacy over the NATO Multilateral Force (MLF). The book covers the summit in detail, examining the diplomatic exchanges over the Vietnam War, the British commitment East of Suez and the MLF, as well as the interplay of personality between Wilson and Johnson. By exploring the relationship of the two leaders in the years 1964-1968, it seeks to examine their respective attitudes to the Anglo-American relationship. The book then assesses the significance of an alleged Anglo-American strategic-economic 'deal', Wilson's 'Commonwealth Peace Mission' to Vietnam, and another Wilson visit to Washington. It also considers why the personal relationship between Johnson and Wilson suffered such strain when the Labour government 'dissociated' the UK from the latest American measures in Vietnam. Next, the book addresses the period from August 1966-September 1967, during which Wilson launched an intense but abortive effort to initiate peace negotiations over Vietnam, and London announced plans to withdraw from military bases East of Suez.

Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

decided to accept candidacies of thirteen countries (including Turkey) and to start negotiations with twelve (all but Turkey) on an equal basis, with 2004 as a possible date for joining by the first in line. It was also decided to establish, by 2003, a 60,000-strong Rapid Reaction Force capable of performing peacemaking or peacekeeping operations autonomously of NATO. The Nice Summit confirmed and codified the trend towards intergovernmental dominance in the EU, especially by the larger member states. This may have been one reason why the Nice Treaty was rejected by the

in Destination Europe
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The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author:

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.