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Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

The effects of gender, households and ethnicity
Jacqueline O’Reilly, Mark Smith, and Paola Villa

if they came from a work-poor household (see Table 13.1). Using data from 2005 and 2011, they show how during the Great Recession this higher likelihood of being unemployed increased across all country groups, apart from in Eastern Europe, albeit this occurred at different rates. The results in Table 13.1 show how the risk of being unemployed for young people was generally higher in traditional breadwinner and work-poor households, and that these risks increased between 2005 and 2011. In the Nordic countries youth unemployment has increased most among traditional

in Making work more equal
Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

towards global free trade in the 1980s and 1990s. Path dependency implies that enough space exists for variations around the productivist model, but not for an ideal that appears to violate international constraints. Even if Nordic countries are poised at the brink of post-productivism, international constraints ensure that at the brink is where they will remain. This objection is well taken and because post-productivism recommends the greater localisation of economic activity, such localisation is TZP5 4/25/2005 4:53 PM Page 107 Productivism and beyond 107

in After the new social democracy
Framing excess in a Swedish newspaper group
Elena Raviola

printing, development, and distribution. As was pointed out, though, the coordination advantages were overestimated (Lapidus, 2014: 33). The cost of operations in the newly expanded group were not perceived as excessive, however, until advertising revenues fell dramatically in 2012. Advertising decreased significantly in the company’s newspaper, and they did not grow enough online to compensate for the loss. As Hjörne explained, this was a problem for everybody in the industry, and not even Schibsted, the company leading digital development in the Nordic countries

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
Open Access (free)
Dalia Abdelhady, Nina Gren, and Martin Joormann

border between the two Nordic countries and EU member states Denmark and Sweden through extensive passport controls targeting asylum seekers. As an immediate response, in order to avoid becoming a bottleneck for unwanted migrants on their way north, Denmark established general passport controls on its border with Germany. Having said this, it should be emphasised that travellers on their way south, i.e. from Sweden through Denmark to Germany, could generally continue to cross these borders without being checked at all.8 While stricter border controls were implemented

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
Martin Joormann

asylum systems, paying privately for a professional immigration lawyer strengthens the applicant’s position (the two Nordic countries here do provide some hours of publicly paid legal aid for all asylum seekers, see above). Outside the asylum system, larger amounts of economic capital – for Maltese citizenship, EUR 900,000 – open up mobility corridors for the ultra-rich (Barbulescu, 2014). This exclusiveness and, consequentially, the social exclusion that these potential and direct advantages of access to economic capital imply, is indeed a classed form of structural

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
Deterrence policies and refugee strategies
Martin Bak Jørgensen

the de facto border closures directed against unwanted migrants on their way to the neighbouring Nordic countries, the perception changed. Since then, the temporary border controls have been extended several times with the approval of the EU due to the alleged state of emergency. Across the Danish political landscape – with the exception of the most leftist parties, the social liberals, and Alternativet (a party resembling Green parties in other countries) – there has been a consensus on the need to limit the number of asylum applicants. Numerous political actors

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
Annika Lindberg

Asylum Seekers at Asylum Centres). PhD, University of Copenhagen. Minimum rights policies 101 Tervonen, M., Pellander, S. and Yuval-Davis, N. (2018). ‘Everyday Bordering in the Nordic Countries’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research 8(3), pp. 139–142. Triandafyllidou, A. and Ambrosini, M. (2011). ‘Irregular Immigration Control in Italy and Greece: Strong Fencing and Weak Gate-Keeping Serving the Labour Market’, European Journal of Migration and Law 13(3), pp. 251–273. Valenta, M. and Thorshaug, K. (2011). ‘Failed Asylum-Seekers’ Responses to Arrangements Promoting

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
Annamaria Simonazzi

, structured around three main dimensions: earnings quality, labour market security and quality of the working environment. It is no wonder that all programme/crisis countries – Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain – do relatively badly in two or all of the three dimensions of job quality, and none performs well in at least one of these dimensions (OECD, 2016). Conversely, Germany and the Nordic countries are among the best performers (at least two out of three dimensions). Outcomes on job quality across socio-economic groups

in Making work more equal
The dualist and complex role of the state in Spanish labour and employment relations in an age of ‘flexibility’
Miguel Martínez Lucio

the ability of trade unions to challenge management attempts at restructuring over the past decade, have undermined the regulation of employment. In effect, the state is caught trying to limit and contain some of the problems it creates through the dualist legacy it has developed. The question of social dialogue in Spain: overcoming challenges from above? While the level of participation in terms of representation at the state level with regards to trade unions and employer organisation is not as embedded as that of certain Nordic countries, the level of political

in Making work more equal