post-Cold War diplomacy, it
seems that the division between globally ‘small’ or medium-status states,
such as the Nordiccountries and Canada, still mattered. In a set of
interviews carried out between 2007 and 2011 with diplomats from many
Arctic states, Arctic governance participants (broadly construed) were
asked who led, who followed and who mattered (Wilson Rowe, 2013b).
Interviewees from the non-great power states (Norway, Canada and
Theorising Arctic hierarchies 69
Denmark/Greenland) were unanimous in underlining the importance of
the USA and Russia
cooperation and the Arctic Environment.
(MFA, Finland, 2015: 3)
Sweden’s statement highlights the more oblique way that most of the
other Nordiccountries addressed the question of broader issues in inter41
national relations between the countries gathered in Iqaluit: ‘there
Table 2 High-level statements at the Iqaluit ministerial meeting
If yes, how?
Noted strained international relations,
and underlined importance of peace
and cooperation in the Arctic.
In terms of enlargement, when it became a member of the EU in 1973,
the UK came to the table with a very liberal view. In contrast, when the
Iberian countries became members of the EU in 1986, Spain and Portugal
came to the table advocating a more protectionist agenda (Woolcock 2005).
This was further complicated when the Nordiccountries became members
of the EU in 1995, although this was somewhat neutralized when the EU
enlarged further in 2004. More specifically, the countries that joined in
2004 tended to advocate a less liberal position compared to the Nordic
The management of migration between care and control
refugees not to attempt to enter Hungary illegally. The full-page
advertisements, published in Arabic and English, warned that refugees
caught entering the country illegally could face imprisonment. A few
months later, the Danish government released a similar advertisement in
major newspapers in Lebanon in which it warned migrants not to come to
the prosperous Nordiccountry, highlighting
teacher. She became involved in the Icelandic tourist industry, was
Director of the Reykjavik Theatre Company 1972–80 and taught French
drama at the University of Iceland. In politics, she was first a Member,
then Chair, of the Advisory Committee on Cultural Affairs in the Nordiccountries 1976–80 before becoming President of Iceland
Foreign Minister of Germany, and