Open Access (free)
The omnibus and urban culture in nineteenth-century Paris
Author: Masha Belenky

Engine of Modernity: The Omnibus and Urban Culture in Nineteenth-Century Paris examines the connection between public transportation and popular culture in nineteenth-century Paris through a focus on the omnibus - a horse-drawn vehicle for mass urban transport which enabled contact across lines of class and gender. A major advancement in urban locomotion, the omnibus generated innovations in social practices by compelling passengers of diverse backgrounds to interact within the vehicle’s close confines. Although the omnibus itself did not actually have an engine, its arrival on the streets of Paris and in the pages of popular literature acted as a motor for a fundamental cultural shift in how people thought about the city, its social life, and its artistic representations. At the intersection of literary criticism and cultural history, Engine of Modernity argues that for nineteenth-century French writers and artists, the omnibus was much more than a mode of transportation. It became a metaphor through which to explore evolving social dynamics of class and gender, meditate on the meaning of progress and change, and reflect on one’s own literary and artistic practices.

Open Access (free)
Reading the omnnibus repertoire
Masha Belenky

In an 1883 article in the Journal des Demoiselles , writer Lucien Griveau declares that omnibus travel is essential to understanding Paris and Parisians: J’aime l’omnibus pour lui-même, pour sa physionomie particulière tout à fait humaine. Il est rare que je le quitte sans qu’il m’ait fourni un sujet d’observation ou de songerie. Il est un des pistons par quoi fonctionne une machine comme Paris, un des multiples agents qui concourent à son mouvement et à sa vie. Tout le jour, dans le lourd véhicule, la société défile avec sa diversité de types, chacun le

in Engine of modernity
Open Access (free)
Omnibus literature and popular culture in nineteenth-century Paris
Masha Belenky

Setting the stage On 25 May 1828, one month after the launch of Stanislas Baudry’s omnibus service in Paris, a new vaudeville play premiered at the Théâtre de Vaudeville. Titled Les omnibus, ou la revue en voiture , the play portrays a bitter dispute between drivers of the newly introduced omnibuses and those of the individual vehicles for hire – fiacres , coucous and cabriolets 1 – that had previously dominated the Parisian transportation market. The drivers of vehicles for hire accuse the omnibus of unfairly luring customers away from other modes of

in Engine of modernity
Staging class aboard the omnibus
Masha Belenky

Le voyage en omnibus unit toutes les classes sociales sans distinction ni division. De tous les milieux parisiens où l’on se puisse rencontrer, la voiture d’omnibus est évidemment celle qui offre la plus parfaite image de démocratie et de fraternité courtoise. Ouvriers, boutiquiers, rentiers, savants, poètes, financiers, comédiens et comédiennes, domestiques et maîtres, musiciens et chanteurs, académiciens et ramasseurs de bouts de cigare s’y coudoient chaque jour quelques courts moments dans le plein air de l’impériale, l’étranglement de la plateforme

in Engine of modernity
Open Access (free)
Masha Belenky

Shakespeare said, ‘All the world is a stage :’ we say, ‘All the world is an omnibus. ’ George W. M. Reynolds, The Mysteries of London In 2013, experimental poet Jacques Roubaud published Ode à la ligne 29 des autobus parisiens , a volume of whimsical poems that takes us on a journey through Paris aboard a bus crossing the city eastward from the Gare Saint-Lazare to the Porte de Montempoivre. 1 Inspired by the poet’s own experience of urban locomotion and his long-standing fondness for Parisian cityscapes, the volume is organised in six cantos

in Engine of modernity
Open Access (free)
Women and public transport
Masha Belenky

Mais tante, je n’ai besoin de personne. Je suis venue toute seule. -Seule! A pied? En voiture? -Non, tante, dans Panthéon-Courcelles. -Mon Dieu, mon Dieu, que Claude est coupable…. 1 Colette, Claudine à Paris When 17-year-old Claudine, the eponymous protagonist of Colette’s 1901 novel, informs her prim and proper Aunt Cœur that she arrived at her house not only unaccompanied but also by way of the Panthéon–Courcelles omnibus, her aunt is profoundly scandalised. Why, we may wonder, did Aunt Cœur find it so inappropriate for a young woman from

in Engine of modernity
Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s
Duncan Wilson

. See also Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics, pp. 225–6. 146 Kennedy, The Unmasking of Medicine, p. 115. 147 Ibid, p. 118. 148 Ibid p. 119. 149 Ibid, p. 129. 150 Ian Kennedy, ‘The Patient on the Clapham Omnibus’, Modern Law Review, Vol. 47, no. 4 (1984) pp. 454–71 (p. 468). 151 R. B. Welbourne, ‘The View of an Editor of The Journal of Medical Ethics’, in ‘Report of a Conference on the Teaching of Medical Ethics, held on Thursday 16 February 1984’ (General Medical Council) pp.  18–20 (p. 20). National Archives FD7/3268. This talk was reprinted as R. B

in The making of British bioethics
Hans Peter Broedel

phantasiis talium obiicit, ex quibus se iudicant fecisse quod per phantasma viderunt, neque propter ista possunt tales personae manifeste illorum facinorum argui neque pactum cum daemone habuisse tacite vel occulte depraehendi.” Ibid., 39. 66 “[Hoc replicatur quod tales homines vel mulieres dicunt, se talia mala supradicta fecisse, que realiter euenerunt per pulueres, liquores, pilos, ungues, rubetas, vel per simulacra quae apud illos reposita inueniuntur. Ex omnibus istis supradictis pure confitentur se fecisse mala, super quibus interrogati sunt testes asserentes hoc

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
Open Access (free)
The gendering of witchcraft
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

their faith, 66 excessively emotional, 67 have weak memories, and lack discipline. 68 The statement that ‘all witchcraft comes from carnal lust, which is in women insatiable’ 69 is notorious; however, the key to Institoris and Sprenger’s view of women’s susceptibility to witchcraft is reflected more accurately in the following remark: ‘quod in omnibus viribus tam anime quam corporis cum sint defectuose non mirum si plura

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Hans Peter Broedel

heresy, Malleus, pt. 3, p. 189. 46 “Et quia in morali iam laboramus materia, unde argumentis variis et declarationibus ubique insistere opus non est . . . ideo precamur in deo lectorem ne demonstrationem in omnibus querat ubi accomodata [sic] sufficit probabilitas ea deducendo qui constat aut visus vel auditus propria experientia aut fide dignorum relationibus esse vera.” Ibid., pt. 2, p. 86. 47 Malleus, Apology, 2; see also Sydney Anglo, “Evident Authority and Authoritative Evidence: The Malleus Maleficarum,” in Sydney Anglo, ed., The Damned Art: Essays in the

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft