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Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

Mendès France, Pierre Mitterrand, François Modrow, Hans Mollet, Guy Monnet, Jean-Marie Moro, Aldo Mussolini, Benito Ollenhauer, Erich Paisley, Ian Palme, Olaf Papandreou, Andreas Pétain, Marshal [See: Vichy regime

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

Second World War. The term originated in France, where General Pétain of the Vichy government announced that he would ‘enter into the way of collaboration’ in October 1940. After the liberation of France in 1944 the tide turned against collaborators. It was rumoured that over 100,000 were executed, although estimates now suggest a figure of some 10,000. There was no thorough purge of public officials needed to lead France

in The politics today companion to West European Politics