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Open Access (free)
Sovereignty, violence and revolution in the Middle East
Author: Simon Mabon

In events that have since become known as the Arab Uprisings or Arab Revolutions, people across the Middle East took to the streets to express their anger and frustration at political climates, demanding political and economic reform. In a number of cases, protest movements were repressed, often violently, with devastating repercussions for human security and peace across the region.

While a number of scholars have sought to understand how the protests occurred, this book looks at sovereignty and the relationship between rulers and ruled to identify and understand both the roots of this anger but also the mechanisms through which regimes were able to withstand seemingly existential pressures and maintain power.

Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

groups. Ultimately, however, religious groups were largely unable to seize power, leading Olivier Roy’s famous claim about 96 96 Houses built on sand ‘the failure of political Islam’15 and, later, a move towards post-​Islamism amid debate about the role of religion in society, politics and the public sphere. The importance of contingent factors that shape the place of religion in society means that we cannot understand such groups and their place within societies –​or across the region more broadly  –​without putting them into political, social and legal contexts

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

-dweller – yesterday’s villager – is less drawn to Islam and its attractions. 18 A review of the history and nature of political Islam in Turkey – for example, the rise to power of the Welfare Party under Necmettin Erbakan and its brief tenure there – reveals that the threat the Islamic parties posed to Turkey’s identity was significantly less than the authorities feared. There was a huge difference between Turkey’s Islamic parties and the radical militant Muslim parties of Iran and Algeria, and it is not by chance that Turkey is rarely mentioned in surveys

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
The end of the dream
Simon Mabon

uncertainty and, over time, rife with contradiction, perhaps best seen in the White House’s responses to events in Egypt and Bahrain. As regimes fought back against protesters, Western governments continued to support their allies in a triumph of realpolitik over normative concerns. Supplementing this were arms sales to Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, in spite of concerns that these weapons were being used in Yemen against civilians and allegations of war crimes. Underpinning Western policy towards the uprisings were long-​standing fears about both Political Islam and Iran. These

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

periodically cracked down on individuals and publications too openly sympathetic to the Kurdish cause. 92 Islamic activists were also victimized by the state. Despite sanctioning and even, to a degree, encouraging the growth of political Islam, the Turkish authorities, extremely sensitive to the threat political Islam posed to the country’s secular identity, took, when necessary, appropriate action – or as the State Department would have it, inappropriate action – to frustrate it. The State Department’s 1999 report noted and strongly criticized the ten

in Turkey: facing a new millennium