A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

Peter D.G. Thomas

Chap 1 19/8/02 11:41 am Page 1 1 The parameters of politics Britain has never had a written constitution. The closest approximation was the Revolution Settlement of William III’s reign, as embodied especially in the 1689 Bill of Rights and the 1701 Act of Settlement. But the provisions were essentially negative, stipulating what the monarch could not do. The sovereign could not override the law of the land, and, in practice, for financial and other reasons, could not govern without an annual meeting of Parliament. By ‘the Revolution’, as it was denoted in

in George III
Claudia Merli and Trudi Buck

This article considers the contexts and processes of forensic identification in 2004 post-tsunami Thailand as examples of identity politics. The presence of international forensic teams as carriers of diverse technical expertise overlapped with bureaucratic procedures put in place by the Thai government. The negotiation of unified forensic protocols and the production of estimates of identified nationals straddle biopolitics and thanatocracy. The immense identification task testified on the one hand to an effort to bring individual bodies back to mourning families and national soils, and on the other hand to determining collective ethnic and national bodies, making sense out of an inexorable and disordered dissolution of corporeal as well as political boundaries. Individual and national identities were the subject of competing efforts to bring order to,the chaos, reaffirming the cogency of the body politic by mapping national boundaries abroad. The overwhelming forensic effort required by the exceptional circumstances also brought forward the socio-economic and ethnic disparities of the victims, whose post-mortem treatment and identification traced an indelible divide between us and them.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Peter D.G. Thomas

Chap 2 19/8/02 11:41 am Page 24 2 The political scenario in 1760 Party terminology in eighteenth-century Britain is a minefield of myth, prejudice, and contradiction. Not since the 1720s had the line between administration and opposition been one between Whig and Tory parties. Outside the main Whig government party, headed since 1754 by the Duke of Newcastle, there existed smaller Whig factions, varyingly in and out of office. In the 1750s only two were of real significance. One was a small talented family group in which the leading figures were the

in George III
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

The industrial politics of disablement 163 5 THE INDUSTRIAL POLITICS OF DISABLEMENT In 1843, one year after Parliament had passed the landmark Mines and Collieries Act banning females and children under the age of 10 from working underground, Punch magazine printed a cartoon titled ‘Capital and Labour’ (Figure 4). Reflecting the magazine’s sympathy for the poor and downtrodden and the spirit of social justice that characterised its radical early years, the image contrasted the circumstances of those who grew rich from coalmining, the wealthy coal owners

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin, and Steven Thompson

5 THE POLITICS AND POLITICISATION OF DISABILITY Introduction On 22 May 1922, Dai Watts Morgan, MP for the Rhondda valleys in south Wales, described the bitterness felt by permanently injured miners in his constituency to his honourable colleagues in the House of Commons. He outlined in uncomfortable detail their long struggle to receive a level of compensation that allowed a decent standard of living: In no case where [the miners] have been totally disabled for life have they received the maximum of £l a week. Such men, when they meet us from day to day or from

in Disability in industrial Britain
The changing scale of warfare and the making of early colonial South Asia
Manu Sehgal

Scale of warfare in early colonial South Asia 4 Towards a political economy of conquest: the changing scale of warfare and the making of early colonial South Asia Manu Sehgal Continuity and change in colonial war- and state-making War-making and state-making have been understood to be closely interrelated and have been studied as such for the early modern period. The ‘bellicist’ origins of the modern nation state have continued to attract cross-disciplinary attention following Charles Tilly’s influential formulation ‘war made the state and the state made war’.1

in A global history of early modern violence
Ben Dew

C H R O N O L O G Y A N D C O M M E R C E 83 4 The English Civil War and the politics of economic statecraft The relationship between historical writing and the political and religious conflicts of the 1640s was a complex one.1 Historians of the period generally emphasised that their loyalty was to the ‘truth’ rather than to any particular faction or party. Hamon L’Estrange, for example, used the frontispiece to his The Reign of King Charles (1655) to claim that this was a work ‘Faithfully and Impartially delivered’.2 Similarly, in the preface to his

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Martin D. Moore

simultaneous shift in the trajectory of British politics, over the next decade retinopathy screening and treatment became the subject of much (albeit intermittent) policy discussion within the DHSS. By 1985 the DHSS had approved a trial programme for retinopathy screening and treatment under a Special Medical Development (SMD) grant, one intended to produce future regional standards. Moving our focus from the clinic to Whitehall, this chapter reconstructs the shifting fortune of retinopathy screening trials within the DHSS, exploring the ways in which

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Elisha P. Renne

11 Polio vaccination, political authority and the Nigerian state Elisha P. Renne So I told him [a soldier] that even if they are going to kill me, I will not allow the governor to enter my house … I also said in the governor's presence that even if President Jonathan comes here, I will not allow them to immunize my child. So the governor

in The politics of vaccination