In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.
simultaneous shift in the trajectory of British politics, over the next decade retinopathy screening and treatment became the subject of much (albeit intermittent) policy discussion within the DHSS. By 1985 the DHSS had approved a trial programme for retinopathy screening and treatment under a Special Medical Development (SMD) grant, one intended to produce future regional standards.
Moving our focus from the clinic to Whitehall, this chapter reconstructs the shifting fortune of retinopathy screening trials within the DHSS, exploring the ways in which
11 Polio vaccination, political authority and the Nigerian
So I told him [a soldier] that even if they are going
to kill me, I will not allow the governor to enter my house … I
also said in the governor's presence that even if President Jonathan
comes here, I will not allow them to immunize my child. So the governor
1 The uneasy politics of epidemic aid: the CDC's mission to Cold
War East Pakistan, 1958
Epidemic outbreaks, political struggle, civil society
Historians warn against narratives in
which actors are spared the dilemmas of chance and choice. No doubt prolepsis,
anachronism and teleology should be avoided, but I find it difficult to tell a
Concepts of ‘balance’ have been central to modern politics, medicine and society.
Yet, while many health, environmental and social challenges are discussed
globally in terms of imbalances in biological, social and ecological systems,
strategies for addressing modern excesses and deficiencies have focused almost
exclusively on the agency of the individual. Balancing the Self explores the
diverse ways in which balanced and unbalanced selfhoods have been subject to
construction, intervention and challenge across the long twentieth century.
Through original chapters on subjects as varied as obesity control, fatigue and
the regulation of work, and the physiology of exploration in extreme conditions,
the volume analyses how concepts of balance and rhetorics of empowerment and
responsibility have historically been used for a variety of purposes, by a
diversity of political and social agencies. Historicising present-day concerns,
as well as uncovering the previously hidden interests of the past, this volume’s
wide-ranging discussions of health governance, subjectivity and balance will be
of interest to historians of medicine, sociologists, social policy analysts, and
social and political historians alike.
Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.
normal lung function for miners, my second group, highlights the extent to which abnormal lung function was attributed to the essential nature of the miner’s body, and underlines the impact of politics on the classification of respiratory disability.
As the definitive essay ‘Throwing Like a Girl’ by I. M. Young, which has inspired one of the section headings for this chapter, argued, there are ‘certain observable and rather ordinary ways in which women in our society typically comport themselves and move differently from the ways that men do’. 7 That such ways of
work as a ‘digital barrier’ to put off applicants and to help ensure application failure. 6 He argued:
There is nothing inherent in Artificial Intelligence and other technologies that enable automation that threatens human rights and the rule of law. The reality is that governments simply seek to operationalize their political preferences through technology; the outcomes may be good or bad. 7
As I have made clear in this book, technologies can and do feature innate political preferences. For example, biases are embedded through the choices of inclusion in
sex differences to take women’s bodies and experiences into account – shows a startling degree of historical naivety about the reasons why we have in the past chosen to measure certain bodies and not others. It is the project of this book to outline the complex historical circumstances and contingencies which have led to the prioritisation of particular measurements of particular kinds. In doing so, I reveal the political expediencies often hidden in the construction of measurement instruments and explicate the potential negative consequences of essentialising
heartrate would not count as disease unless it persisted after the effects of the drugs should have worn off. 17 The advantages of the BST system lies in its practical use for clinical studies and clinicians, its broad and general applicability, its simplicity and apparent objectivity and political neutrality.
But do the dynamic and unpredictable functions of day-to-day normal physiology point towards a serious flaw in Boorse’s account? That is, unless the BST is modified to situation-specific cases, it is unable to account for dynamic physiological functions. 18 The