to everyday popularculture as well as highbrow literature and cinema (Imre 2014 ). Indeed, south-east European studies uses the critique of balkanism to discern a common politics of representation and exotification – with many incentives for creators to internalise exoticising Western gazes on their region – affecting music, cinema and literature alike (Iordanova 2001 ; Baker 2008 ; Volčič 2013 ). 1 More than just a parallel to what Stuart Hall termed the ‘spectacle of the “Other” ’ (Hall 1997 ) driving the construction of racial difference since imperial
This book explains theoretical work in postcolonial and postsocialist studies to
offer a novel and distinctive insight into how Yugoslavia is configured by, and
through, race. It presents the history of how ideas of racialised difference
have been translated globally in Yugoslavia. The book provides a discussion on
the critical race scholarship, global historical sociologies of 'race in
translation' and south-east European cultural critique to show that the
Yugoslav region is deeply embedded in global formations of race. It considers
the geopolitical imagination of popular culture; the history of ethnicity; and
transnational formations of race before and during state socialism, including
the Non-Aligned Movement. The book also considers the post-Yugoslav discourses
of security, migration, terrorism and international intervention, including the
War on Terror and the refugee crisis. It elaborates how often-neglected aspects
of the history of nationhood and migration reveal connections that tie the
region into the global history of race. The book also explains the linkage
between ethnic exclusivism and territory in the ethnopolitical logic of the
Bosnian conflict and in the internationally mediated peace agreements that
enshrined it: 'apartheid cartography'. Race and whiteness remained
perceptible in post-war Bosnian identity discourses as new, open-ended forms of
post-conflict international intervention developed.
's ‘Negrophilia’ exhibition – the basis of Jan Nederveen Pieterse's study of images of Africa and blackness in Western popularculture (Pieterse 1992 : 15) – collected US, British, German, French and Dutch representations, with its transatlantic and transnational scope hailed as innovative (Pieterse 1992 : 15), yet its ‘Europe’ went no further east than Imperial Germany (and no further south than the Pyrenees). Coloniality and race, in this end-of-the-Cold-War exhibition, was not a lens applicable to eastern Europe, conceptually the ‘Second World’ for forty years. Two decades
Dube , “Telling tales
and trying truths: transgressions, entitlements and legalities in
village disputes, late colonial central India,” Studies in History , 13 ( 1996 ): 171–201 .
Thompson , Customs in Common: Studies in Traditional
PopularCulture ( New York
What does race have to do with the Yugoslav region?
was a named political issue (Gilroy 1987 ; Anthias and Yuval-Davis 1993 ; Lentin 2004 ; Fekete 2009 ).
While south-east (and eastern) Europe has seen less migration from outside Europe (and that is not the same as no migration), other bonds tie it into the global racial order. These include the fantasies and desires of colonial exoticism, legible in the region's contemporary and historic popularculture, and the transnational imaginative circuits along which globalised popular entertainment travels; histories of people of colour who
may be a degree of
heteronomy even in our apparently most autonomous acts.
Clearly the kinds of agreement and what kinds of evidence can be valid diﬀer, depending
on the aims of a particular practice, but transitions between the demands of cognitive,
ethical and aesthetic judgement can also be a vital source of new insight.
I do not mean that other people are free of the mechanism of projection, just that the
manipulation of this mechanism is now perhaps the dominant factor in much of Western
It seems no coincidence that many critics now think the
Fetishism ; David Warren
Sabean , Power in the Blood: PopularCulture and
Village Discourse in Early Modern Germany ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 1984 ); Dirks, The Hollow Crown ; Rosaldo,
Ilongot Headhunting .
A few indicative examples include Comaroff and
Comaroff, Of Revelation and Revolution
awareness of the
individual’s uniqueness, which had eluded his colleagues.
It is still not customary to criticise progress. Conservatism is not a
positive adjective in the early stages of the twenty-first century – nor was
it in the middle of the eighteenth. Voltaire scornfully rebuked Rousseau’s
opposition to science and progress in Discourse sur l’inégalité, branding it
Rousseau’s ‘second book against the human race’ (Gray 1998: 38).2 Yet,
even in popularculture there have occasionally been criticisms of the
unintended consequences of the evolution of technologies that