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Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

, dying’, ‘three hundred years behind the rest of the world’. 23 Moreover, in the racist narrative dominant in the country, the ‘Anglo-Saxon race’, the Americans in particular, were regarded the ‘superior race’, with the Africans and American Indians at the lowest scale, and Latin people, such as the Spaniards, somewhere between the two extremes. At various times during 1895–98 the Cuban insurgents were disparaged on the basis that the majority of fighters were Afro-Cubans and

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

, nineteenth-century European and American views ranged from racialist (differences due to stage of development, which could be overcome) to racist (innate unbridgeable differences) intertwined with the concept of civilization. The new concept of ‘race’, introduced in eighteenth-century anthropology by Georges Buffon and Johann Blumenbach, came to rank peoples as ‘races’ hierarchically. The races of mankind were innately unequal according to Arthur de Gobineau

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Just war and against tyranny
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

injury to others, if one has the power to do so. 34 He asserted that ‘those who say that we should think about the interests of our fellow citizens, but not those of foreigners, destroy the common society of the human race’. 35 Gentili and Grotius quote the following dictum by Seneca: that if another sovereign ‘remote from my nation harasses his own … the duty which I owe to the human race is prior and superior to that which I owe [that

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Surveillance and transgender bodies in a post-9/ 11 era of neoliberalism
Christine Quinan

, being transgender or gender-nonconforming is inextricably bound up in – and is triggering of – (state) mechanisms of surveillance, not dissimilar from the experience of other marginalised groups, such as people of colour, Muslim immigrants, and the poor. Bodily norms – informed by race, gender, and sexuality (i.e., whiteness, normative masculinity/femininity, and heterosexuality) – are encoded in tools of

in Security/ Mobility
Civilisation, civil society and the Kosovo war
Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen

) conflict remain basically unchanged, although the construction of these conflicts is now increasingly driven by identity. This is bad news, according to Huntington, because identity is constituted by conflict: ‘Identity at any level – personal, tribal, racial, civilisational – can only be defined in relation to an ‘other’, a different person, tribe, race, or civilization

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Between humanitarianism and pragmatism
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

to ‘free his cο-religionists from the intolerable oppression of the Turks. No more generous or holy crusade was ever been undertaken on the part of a strong race to befriend a weak one’. 63 The victory of the Russian army brought Ignatiev to the highest point of his career. Now was his chance to remodel the Ottoman Empire according to his taste. 64 An imperial council was convened and Ignatiev presented (as at Constantinople earlier) a maximum and

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

Mill on Race’, Utilitas , 10:1 (1998), 18–32. 130 Mill, ‘A Few Words’, 176–7. 131 Ibid., 176. 132 For this hesitation on the part of Mill, see: Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars (New York: Basic Books, 1977), 93; Laberge, ‘Humanitarian Intervention’, 23; Varouxakis, ‘John Stuart Mill on

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

chapter 3 ), but most advocates avoided any distinction as to its application, which implies that they considered, as a matter of principle, that intervention for reasons of humanity is applicable to all, irrespective of degree of civilization. Some of the supporters of humanitarian intervention were explicit in this regard. Hornung posited that such intervention had to be raised ‘above considerations of religion or race’ and become ‘truly humanitarian in

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
A European fin de siècle
Sergei Medvedev

media. An analogy can be made with today’s top racing cars that carry on-board cameras, and rather than mere racing their function becomes showing the race. (In this sense, it is preferable that a car sometimes crashes, providing a unique view from the cockpit, to be replayed in slow motion). By the same token, today’s bombs and missiles with inbuilt cameras are designed to destroy but also to

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Constructing security in historical perspective
Jonathan B. Isacoff

Israel had been local and sporadic, not state policy; thereafter, they were promoted and directed by Cairo . . . The Gaza Raid proved to be a turning point in Israeli– Egyptian relations and in the history of the Middle East . . . Gaza had not only led to Egyptian counter-raiding. It had also set in motion a massive arms race, bound to end in war. ( Morris

in Redefining security in the Middle East