This is the first monograph length study that charts the coercive diplomacy of the administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford as practiced against their British ally in order to persuade Edward Heath’s government to follow a more amenable course throughout the ‘Year of Europe’ and to convince Harold Wilson’s governments to lessen the severity of proposed defence cuts. Such diplomacy proved effective against Heath but rather less so against Wilson. It is argued that relations between the two sides were often strained, indeed, to the extent that the most ‘special’ elements of the relationship, that of intelligence and nuclear co-operation, were suspended. Yet, the relationship also witnessed considerable co-operation. This book offers new perspectives on US and UK policy towards British membership of the European Economic Community; demonstrates how US détente policies created strain in the ‘special relationship’; reveals the temporary shutdown of US-UK intelligence and nuclear co-operation; provides new insights in US-UK defence co-operation, and revaluates the US-UK relationship throughout the IMF Crisis.
would come under severe strain. Demonstrative of this was the fact that on
a number of separate occasions the most ‘special’ areas of US−UK cooperation, which related to the intelligence and nuclear aspects of the relationship,
were suspended at the behest of Washington because of wider US−UK political
disagreements. Indeed, by the end of 1973, it appeared as if the special relationship was at an end with both RichardNixon and Henry Kissinger declaring
it to be ‘over’.2
A strained partnership?
RichardNixon (London: Jonathan Cape, 1994).
4 Stanley Kutler, Abuse of Power: The New Nixon Tapes (New York: The Free Press, 1997),
p. 458; Haig, Inner Circles, pp. 321–408.
5 On Nixon considering firing Kissinger see: Anthony Summers, The Arrogance of
Power: The Secret World of RichardNixon (London: Victor Gollancz, 2000), pp. 451–2;
Chuck Colson, Born Again (New York: Crossings Classics, 1976), pp. 73–5. During
this conversation with Schlesinger, Nixon reveals that he intended for Schlesinger
to balance Kissinger’s domination of US foreign policy. See
Re-assessing foreign policy
There could be no special partnership between Britain and the
United States, even if Britain wanted it.
Prime Minister Heath to President Pompidou, May 19711
The jilted lover
According to Henry Kissinger, Edward Heath rejected a close working partnership with RichardNixon, which left him feeling akin to that of a ‘jilted
lover’.2 Kissinger’s analysis has had an incredible impact upon the subsequent scholarly assessments of the US–UK relationship. As Heath’s official
biographer Philip Ziegler has claimed, ‘Certainly it was
federal powers. Cooperative federalism was championed most enthusiastically during Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs in the 1960s, and it continued to grow even under the more
cautious RichardNixon, whose “new federalism” tried to remove to some
extent the federal bureaucracy from its heavy involvement in state and
local governments through such innovations as revenue sharing. A reaction set in with Ronald Reagan, whose “new federalism” was more like the
old dual federalism in that he sought to “sort out” the responsibilities of
the different levels and, in the
President will deliver a weekly radio address on any subject of
his choice and will on important occasions address the nation
Newspapers still have an important role to play. They have
retained the ability to pursue stories over a longer period of
time and to undertake in-depth investigations, free from the
pressures suffered by television and radio to report news on
an hourly basis. The most famous of these investigations was
the Watergate affair which, ultimately, led to the resignation
of President RichardNixon. The central figures behind
What did you do in the Drug War, Daddy?
The War on Drugs has been going on since US President RichardNixon coined
the term in the late 1960s. It appears at first sight to be a completely illogical
concept: how, we might ask ourselves, can a war be fought against a conceptual
term that defies definition? Of course, the War on Drugs refers to those drugs
that have been proscribed by law and therefore deemed illegal, and it represents
a conflict with the express intention of eradicating illicit substance use from the
face of the
March 1974, File: March 11, 1974, Kissinger,
Schlesinger, Joint Chiefs, NSAMC Box 3, GFL.
30 Kissinger was working closely with George Schultz and Arthur Burns with regard to
applying economic pressure upon the EEC. See: Ferrell (ed.), The Secret Diary of Arthur
Burns, pp. 123–4; Telcon: Secretary Kissinger–Secretary Schultz, 16 March 1974,
31 Question and Answer Session at the Executives Club of Chicago, 15 March 1974, in
Public Papers of the President, RichardNixon, 1974, p. 276.
32 Memorandum of Conversation, 11 March 1974, File: March 11