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Open Access (free)
US–UK relations in the era of détente, 1969–77
Author: Thomas Robb

This is the first monograph length study that charts the coercive diplomacy of the administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford as practiced against their British ally in order to persuade Edward Heath’s government to follow a more amenable course throughout the ‘Year of Europe’ and to convince Harold Wilson’s governments to lessen the severity of proposed defence cuts. Such diplomacy proved effective against Heath but rather less so against Wilson. It is argued that relations between the two sides were often strained, indeed, to the extent that the most ‘special’ elements of the relationship, that of intelligence and nuclear co-operation, were suspended. Yet, the relationship also witnessed considerable co-operation. This book offers new perspectives on US and UK policy towards British membership of the European Economic Community; demonstrates how US détente policies created strain in the ‘special relationship’; reveals the temporary shutdown of US-UK intelligence and nuclear co-operation; provides new insights in US-UK defence co-operation, and revaluates the US-UK relationship throughout the IMF Crisis.

Open Access (free)
Thomas Robb

relationship would come under severe strain. Demonstrative of this was the fact that on a number of separate occasions the most ‘special’ areas of US−UK cooperation, which related to the intelligence and nuclear aspects of the relationship, were suspended at the behest of Washington because of wider US−UK political disagreements. Indeed, by the end of 1973, it appeared as if the special relationship was at an end with both Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger declaring it to be ‘over’.2 01_Strained_partnership_001-023.indd 1 06/11/2013 12:43 2 A strained partnership? Yet

in A strained partnership?
Thomas Robb

Richard Nixon (London: Jonathan Cape, 1994).   4 Stanley Kutler, Abuse of Power: The New Nixon Tapes (New York: The Free Press, 1997), p. 458; Haig, Inner Circles, pp. 321–408.   5 On Nixon considering firing Kissinger see: Anthony Summers, The Arrogance of Power: The Secret World of Richard Nixon (London: Victor Gollancz, 2000), pp. 451–2; Chuck Colson, Born Again (New York: Crossings Classics, 1976), pp. 73–5. During this conversation with Schlesinger, Nixon reveals that he intended for Schlesinger to balance Kissinger’s domination of US foreign policy. See

in A strained partnership?
Thomas Robb

2 Re-assessing foreign policy 1969–72 There could be no special partnership between Britain and the United States, even if Britain wanted it. Prime Minister Heath to President Pompidou, May 19711 The jilted lover According to Henry Kissinger, Edward Heath rejected a close working partnership with Richard Nixon, which left him feeling akin to that of a ‘jilted lover’.2 Kissinger’s analysis has had an incredible impact upon the subsequent scholarly assessments of the US–UK relationship. As Heath’s official biographer Philip Ziegler has claimed, ‘Certainly it was

in A strained partnership?
Open Access (free)
The German model of federalism
Arthur B. Gunlicks

federal powers. Cooperative federalism was championed most enthusiastically during Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs in the 1960s, and it continued to grow even under the more cautious Richard Nixon, whose “new federalism” tried to remove to some extent the federal bureaucracy from its heavy involvement in state and local governments through such innovations as revenue sharing. A reaction set in with Ronald Reagan, whose “new federalism” was more like the old dual federalism in that he sought to “sort out” the responsibilities of the different levels and, in the

in The Länder and German federalism
Ross M. English

, the President will deliver a weekly radio address on any subject of his choice and will on important occasions address the nation via television. Newspapers still have an important role to play. They have retained the ability to pursue stories over a longer period of time and to undertake in-depth investigations, free from the pressures suffered by television and radio to report news on an hourly basis. The most famous of these investigations was the Watergate affair which, ultimately, led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon. The central figures behind

in The United States Congress
Colin Craig

7 Colin Craig What did you do in the Drug War, Daddy? Inhaling metaphor The War on Drugs has been going on since US President Richard Nixon coined the term in the late 1960s. It appears at first sight to be a completely illogical concept: how, we might ask ourselves, can a war be fought against a conceptual term that defies definition? Of course, the War on Drugs refers to those drugs that have been proscribed by law and therefore deemed illegal, and it represents a conflict with the express intention of eradicating illicit substance use from the face of the

in Changing anarchism
Open Access (free)
Thomas Robb

March 1974, File: March 11, 1974, Kissinger, Schlesinger, Joint Chiefs, NSAMC Box 3, GFL.   30 Kissinger was working closely with George Schultz and Arthur Burns with regard to applying economic pressure upon the EEC. See: Ferrell (ed.), The Secret Diary of Arthur Burns, pp. 123–4; Telcon: Secretary Kissinger–Secretary Schultz, 16 March 1974, HAKTELCONS.   31 Question and Answer Session at the Executives Club of Chicago, 15 March 1974, in Public Papers of the President, Richard Nixon, 1974, p. 276.   32 Memorandum of Conversation, 11 March 1974, File: March 11

in A strained partnership?