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Vaccine scares, statesmanship and the media
Andrea Stöckl and Anna Smajdor

. Scientists realised that they would need to fight in support of their cause. In short, it became clear that ‘research has to be justified to the satisfaction of the lay community and its parliamentary representatives’. 55 The scientists who were newly mobilised to fight for their cause regarded themselves as fighters for scientific freedom, integrity and rationality, pitted against the ignorant, emotional and irrational public. They were

in The politics of vaccination
The origins and endurance of club regulation
Duncan Wilson

involved the arrest and execution of scientists opposed to Trofim Lysenko, who fraudulently claimed to have perfected a way of increasing crop yields and transmitting acquired characteristics to later generations.88 Supporters of scientific freedom argued that the collapse of Soviet genetics and agriculture proved just how harmful external interference was for science. Support for club regulation was strengthened further during the 1950s, thanks to advances in biological and medical research such as the development of effective anti-tuberculosis drugs, open-heart surgery

in The making of British bioethics
Martin D. Moore

–1914’, Journal of Contemporary History , 20:4 (1985), 503–20. 36 D. L. Brick, J. Brick, and J. W. Richardson, ‘Fining the doctor’, BMJ , 2:4902, S.233 (1954), 241. 37 Though perhaps one explanation for the divergence between practice and responses lay in the connections between voluntary institutions and autonomy in the professional imagination: S. Hastings, ‘Scientific freedom and social medicine’, BMJ , 1:4290 (1943), 392–3. 38 ‘Administration of special departments’, BMJ , 2:4784, S.2486 (1952

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Johan Östling

democracy was to safeguard scholarly and scientific freedom. After a few years, however, interest in the forum cooled significantly, and in 1949 the discussions in Marburg took place for the last time.11 Under British guidance, a commission was set up which mainly consisted of reform-minded German academics. They visited most universities in the three western zones, and in 1948 they presented a comprehensive reform proposal, the so-called ‘Gutachten zur Hochschulreform’ (literally ‘experts’ report concerning the reform of higher education’). In the ‘Blaues Gutachten

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

lofty as those once championed by the German university, argued Habermas.108 Hochschule in der Demokratie discussed the university’s organisation and place in society, along with democracy and scholarly-scientific freedom, the university’s ideology, and the situation of the students. A concluding excursus was devoted to ‘Women and the university’, as though this were a marginal topic. The authors’ relationship to the German university tradition became particularly obvious in an introductory historical chapter and in the third part of the book. Like the text from 1961

in Humboldt and the modern German university