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Antonius C. G. M. Robben

Thousands of people died in Rotterdam during the Second World War in more than 300 German and Allied bombardments. Civil defence measures had been taken before the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940 and these efforts were intensified during the country’s occupation as Allied bombers attacked Rotterdam’s port, factories, dry docks and oil terminals. Residential neighbourhoods were also hit through imprecise targeting and by misfired flak grenades. Inadequate air raid shelters and people’s reluctance to enter them caused many casualties. The condition of the corpses and their post-mortem treatment was thus co-constituted by the relationship between the victims and their material circumstances. This article concludes that an understanding of the treatment of the dead after war, genocide and mass violence must pay systematic attention to the materiality of death because the condition, collection and handling of human remains is affected by the material means that impacted on the victims.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Re-thinking Ludwik Fleck’s concept of the thought-collective according to the case of Serbian archaeology
Monika Milosavljević

serology, haematology, experimental medicine, immunology, bacteriology, the methodology of science, scientific observations and the history of discoveries. In 1935, owing to his Jewish identity, he was dismissed from the laboratory at which he had worked since 1928. When the Germans occupied Lviv at the start of the Second World War, he was the director of the bacteriological laboratory within the city’s Jewish hospital. It was at this time that he succeeded in developing a reliable diagnostic test for typhus, which provided swift detection and isolation in the midst of

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Antonín Salač and the French School at Athens
Thea De Armond

benevolent French oversight to independent archaeological excavations – and an archaeological institute – has been traversed by a number of states, which once had foreign members at the French School. The Swedish Institute at Athens, for one, was established shortly after the Second World War (you will recall that Picard invoked the excavations of Sweden’s Axel Persson, Salač’s colleague in the Foreign Section, as a model for Salač’s Samothraki excavations). Belgium, too, the only country to sign a convention with France to facilitate its sending students to the French

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
The first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58
Arthur Weststeijn and Laurien de Gelder

off limits for non-Italian campaigns. Ever since the unification of Italy, with Rome becoming the new nation’s capital in 1871, large-scale fieldwork projects in the city had been effectively restricted to Italian experts, the likes of Rodolfo Lanciani, Giacomo Boni and Alfonso Bartoli. But after the collapse of the Fascist regime and with the nascent process of European collaboration in the aftermath of the Second World War, Italy gradually opened up its rich soil to archaeologists from abroad. The Dutch were among the first to profit from this opportunity; their

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Jes Wienberg

the massive devastation of heritage during the First and Second World Wars. And alongside Abu Simbel, emphasis was placed on UNESCO’s action after a natural disaster when wind, high water levels, and violent rain caused flooding in Venice and Florence, Trento and Siena in 1966; subsequently, Venice and its lagoons (WHL 394, 1987), Florence (WHL 174bis, 1982, 2015), and Siena (WHL 717, 1995) all became World Heritage sites. The World Heritage Convention begins by mentioning the need to protect the outstanding and universal; protection presupposes that something is

in Heritopia
Open Access (free)
Clusters of knowledge
Julia Roberts and Kathleen Sheppard

practises archaeology as well as their methods and theories. Examinations of fieldwork practice (Lucas, 2001), including fringe archaeology in Britain before the Second World War (Stout, 2008), broaden the picture of how archaeology was performed in the field. Moreover, there has been a move away from the assumption that ‘archaeology’ means solely European prehistory (Hall, 2000; Mizoguchi, 2011). Histories of historical archaeology are appearing and the history of Classical archaeology has been gathering steady momentum (Schnapp, 1996, 2002; Gran-Aymerich, 1998, 2001

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Jes Wienberg

spearheaded by UNESCO to save Venice after the floods in 1966, and the IUCN proposal of a World Heritage Trust in 1968. After a first draft presented at the UN Conference in Stockholm in 1972, experts from UNESCO, ICOMOS, and IUCN prepared the final convention proposal, which could be adopted in Paris that same year. The background to the World Heritage Convention may also be followed back to the Second World War (e.g. Labadi 2013 : 26ff). After the war’s massive destruction and breakdown of the political order, developments restarted with new organisations. The UN and

in Heritopia
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

contributions to scholarship on the topic: he argued strongly that bog bodies dated from the Mesolithic to the Second World War itself, refuting the notion that this was a chronologically restricted phenomenon. In this analysis he was undoubtedly right, but unfortunately, many of his ‘paper’ examples have since been called into question (van der Sanden 2006 ). His original manuscript dating to 1939 was destroyed in the Allied bombing of Leipzig, and although his archive was accessioned by the Institute für Denkmalpflege in Hanover, his primary informants are now deceased and

in Bog bodies
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

. It was the nineteenth century that saw the rise of more popular antiquarianism and a specific interest in human remains (especially crania) as indicators of racial history (Morse 2005 ; Trigger 2006 ). This led to the wider reporting and curation of bog bodies, or at least fragments from them. War-time pressure on indigenous fuel production, the provision of animal bedding or litter and the post-Second World War urge to drain and improve surviving wetlands for farming were coupled with the commercial extraction of peat, and both were assisted by mechanised

in Bog bodies
Open Access (free)
Jes Wienberg

Figs 4: 1–8). Harrison claims to identify a boom from around 1970, but his graphs do not show any uniform trend, apart from a gradual increase over a long period of time with breaks for the First and Second World Wars and some temporary deviations. The increase can be demonstrated from the nineteenth century (British Museum) and from the 1920s (Stonehenge, Yosemite), the 1940s (Colonial), and the 1950s (Chao). World Heritage Sites in Danger demonstrates growth since the 1970s, when the list came into being. Only National Trust membership displays a clear steep rise

in Heritopia