War – and yet the black soldiers on the Salonika Front, even alone, would show the region was not outside that genealogy (Bjelić 2016 ). The Great War is as much a part of the history of race and the Yugoslav region as the theme on which the most explicit discussions of race in the region have turned – the racialisation of ethnonational and religious boundaries that facilitated genocidal expressions of Serb and Croat ethnonationalism during the SecondWorldWar.
Scientific racism and ethnonationalism before and during the SecondWorldWar
; local residents often racialised Gurkhas, at least initially, as ‘Chinese’. Tuzla, meanwhile, was the centre of US military presence, which peaked at 20,000 in 1996 before scaling down to 5,000 then 1,000 in 1998–2004 (Phillips 2004 ). US force-protection policies, after the humiliation of Somalia, made social encounters between local residents and US personnel much more transitory in late-1990s Bosnia than during the post-SecondWorldWar Allied occupation of Germany, and African-American troops did not have similar cultural impact 11 – though Bosnians recruited
middle-class West Indian children, he is indulged.
He loves comic books – the large, brightly coloured American
ones, and later the smaller, grittier black-and-white ones with British
SecondWorldWar stories. This passion is one of the few he and his
father share, and so the man funds and shares his son’s
insatiable appetite for them.
I cannot say that I knew my father well. Perhaps he did
in SecondWorldWar historiography about how far Fascism and Nazism influenced the NDH (Kallis 2015 ); they still laid foundations that would transform again as the Yugoslav region negotiated the geopolitics of the Cold War.
Venetian formations of race
In October 2015, the Croatian football club HNK Rijeka, nicknamed ‘Bijeli’ (‘Whites’) for their all-white home strip, wore an unusual fourth kit against nearby Opatija: a purple shirt half-covered by a black-skinned, turbaned head, with prominent red lips and gold-rimmed eyes
wake of the SecondWorldWar devised
plans for a federal European super-state to prevent wars, they were not the
originators of that idea. In the eighteenth century Abbé de Saint Pierre –
a French writer with a poor reputation (Vaughan 1962: 359) – had
developed the same idea. Saint-Pierre’s plan would hardly have warranted
a footnote in the history of ideas had it not been for Rousseau’s interest in
the project – or rather the interest that Rousseau was urged to take. In the
Confessions Rousseau recollected
After my return from Geneva … through the invitation of
never has to engage with the public political sphere. The failure of this
public sphere in modern Germany until after the SecondWorldWar is a major
source of the disasters of Germany’s history, and the contribution to that history
of thinking which believes it is possible to withdraw from public action into
inwardness cannot be ignored. On the other hand, music can also sustain a
potential for new articulation which can provide both individual and collective
Aesthetics and subjectivity
motivations. This is itself a political matter, as the considerable role