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Rhiannon Vickers

Vic06 10/15/03 2:11 PM Page 133 Chapter 6 Hitler, Munich and the Second World War By 1937 the Labour Party had accepted the need for rearmament in the face of the threat posed by Hitler and the growth of fascism in Europe, whereas the National government combined a policy of rearmament along with conciliation towards Hitler. Hitler’s remilitarisation of the Rhineland in 1936, in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles, and his failure to meet Germany’s reparations payments, had been met with little resistance or even criticism by the British government. By

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
The evolution of Labour’s foreign policy, 1900–51

This is the first book in a two-volume set that traces the evolution of the Labour Party's foreign policy throughout the twentieth century and into the early years of the new millennium. It is a comprehensive study of the political ideology and history of the Labour Party's world-view and foreign policy. The set argues that the development of Labour's foreign policy perspective should be seen not as the development of a socialist foreign policy, but as an application of the ideas of liberal internationalism. The first volume outlines and assesses the early development and evolution of Labour's world-view. It then follows the course of the Labour Party's foreign policy during a tumultuous period on the international stage, including the First World War, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, the build-up to and violent reality of the Second World War, and the start of the Cold War. The book provides an analysis of Labour's foreign policy during this period, in which Labour experienced power for the first time.

Open Access (free)
Liberal reform and the creation of new conflict economies
Jenny H. Peterson

of its coinage from silver mines at Artana/Novo Brdo’ (KTA/UNMIK, 2005: 2). In the 1930s, Seltrust, a British company, helped create modern mining around Mitrovica and in turn, during the Second World War, allied forces used batteries produced at Trepça (KTA/UNMIK, 2005). In relation to the most recent conflict over Trepça, the revocation of autonomy at the end of the 1980s and the subsequent transfer of assets to Serbian interests also involves several international actors. Assets transferred to Serbia were in turn sold to 131 4062 building a peace economy_2652

in Building a peace economy?
José Luís Fiori

collectively from a long battle within the American establishment, in which the military has, for the time being, gained the upper hand over civil servants and career politicians, with their cosmopolitan project of liberal order and rules-based global governance, initiated after the Second World War and expanded after the Cold War. If this victory is consolidated, it will bring an end to the American messianism of the twentieth century, with its division of the world between ‘good’ and ‘evil’, its globalising imperative to reorganise the world through the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Germany, the use of force and the power of strategic culture
Kerry Longhurst

Germany’s new position in Europe and acquisition of full sovereignty. Instead, through an examination of changing perspectives on the use of force in Germany throughout this period, it can be argued that the ending of the Cold War was not followed by a state of ‘collective infancy’ in Germany akin to that which followed the Second World War. Essentially, none of the foundational elements of the existing strategic culture was fundamentally challenged, disregarded or rendered obsolete, but, as I argue below, rather came to be reinterpreted and reapplied through

in Germany and the use of force
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

Introduction The first thing to say about liberal order is that it hasn’t been that liberal. Since the Second World War, the production of subjects obeisant to the rule of liberal institutions has depended on illiberal and authoritarian methods – not least on the periphery of the world system, where conversion to Western reason has been pursued with particularly millenarian zeal, and violence. The wishful idea of an ever more open and global market economy has been continuously undermined by its champions, with their subsidies

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

response to the global refugee crisis reminds us that there is very little that is new in the world of humanitarianism. We have, as his claim that the questions of the 1940s have ‘returned to public life’ suggests, faced many of these questions before ( Miliband, 2016 ). And while history does not repeat itself – the humanitarian situation in Europe after the Second World War cannot be directly equated with our contemporary context – we can look to the past to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

first time in modern history, the major global power – I am of course referring to the US – doesn’t have a project for the world. It is evident that the US has always defended its own interests, but it always imagined or at least presented its interests – I’m not casting a value judgement here – as linked to a project for the world. Following the Second World War, it was the Americans who assumed primary responsibility for the creation of the international system, starting with Roosevelt. Some international institutions were accessible to all

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

governments provided resources (financial, material or diplomatic) to the Red Cross and the Churches. This allowed them to satisfy the public demand without getting too involved. Kevin: I think that it is useful to think about the Biafran conflict as playing out at the junction of three overlapping trends in post-Second World War international politics. The first is the question of sovereignty. The UNHCR’s refusal to intervene in Biafra is a very good example of how strictly the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was seen as responsible for safeguarding medical neutrality, which is the concept of non-interference in medical services in conflict situations, built around IHL, human rights law and medical ethics. This role was most apparent and effective post-Second World War and up to the late 1990s ( Druce et al. , 2019 ). Over the past three decades, however, the increase in interstate and internationalised wars has led to longer, more complicated wars with more long-term effects and an erosion of the protection of healthcare that has

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs