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De-scribing Imperial identity from alien to migrant
Peter Childs

Third World fiction after the Second World War that the fictional uses of “nation” and “nationalism” are most pronounced.’ He goes on to say that, following the war, English social identity underwent a transformation based on its earlier imperial encounters. Colonialism in reverse created ‘a new sense of what it means to be “English”’ (1990: 46–7). However, Brennan does not consider what changes have been wrought on that society, what reinventions of tradition have manufactured new Englands of the mind, alongside the pronouncements of newly forged nationalist

in Across the margins
Open Access (free)
Debatable lands and passable boundaries
Aileen Christianson

relation to Robert Burns: I don’t think we need a national bard. I think folk call him that out of laziness, because they can’t be bothered to read what’s been written since. It’s a monolithic attitude, where every era seems to have enshrined one male. A vibrant culture, as we have, is in the hands of many, many people. (quoted in Dunkerley, 1996)13 Hugh MacDiarmid, the writer who bestrode the Scottish literary renaissance (in many ways defining it), had an iconographic function similar to Burns in Scottish intellectual and literary life after the Second World War. The

in Across the margins
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Chantal Chawaf ’s melancholic autofiction
Kathryn Robson

described as ‘melancholic autofiction’, melancholic autobiographical fiction. We know from interviews and publicity notices accompanying Chawaf ’s texts that she was born during a bomb explosion in Paris in  in which her parents were killed and she was extracted from her dying mother’s womb by Caesarian section.2 Since Chawaf ’s first novel Retable/La Rêverie (), which features a melancholic orphan whose parents were killed in a bomb explosion in the Second World War, her novels have repeatedly returned to fictionalised scenes of parental death.3 This chapter deals

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
Sylvie Germain and the generic problems of the Christian novel
Margaret-Anne Hutton

family, centring on the principal character, Victor-Flandrin, and the suffering he endures. Germain weaves into her fictional universe historical events drawn from our own ‘reality’: Germain and the Christian novel  generations of the Péniel family are caught up in the Franco-Prussian War, and the First and Second World Wars. Two observations must be made here: first, Germain is not writing in the realist genre, and second, she does not restrict her text to a representation or promotion of Christianity. Alongside representations of ‘real’ historical events, and

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
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Murdo Macdonald

-division of the larger’ (1906: 1) A gloss on this was made by Hugh MacDiarmid half a century later in his 1950 essay Aesthetics in Scotland. There he wrote of the exhibition already noted, The Arts of Scotland, held in London just before the Second World War: ‘It will be remembered that Sir William Llewellyn, the then President of the Royal Academy, confessed that he had had no idea before he saw that exhibition that Scotland had such a rich and distinctive tradition of its own in the art of painting’ (1984 [1950]: 21). As recently as 1990, surprised comment could be heard

in Across the margins
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Sara Haslam

back to an old life that they could no longer inhabit with ease. An existential gap that could have been filled by a reunification of man with repressed urges is, rather, emphasised; the lack is felt more strongly as the men go home. Dyer writes that soldiers returned from this zone of obliteration [the western front] to an England virtually untouched by war. The Second World War left London and other cities cratered and ravaged by the Blitz. After the Great War the architecture and landscape of England were unchanged except, here and there, for relatively slight

in Fragmenting modernism
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Elleke Boehmer

’s Atonement, a 2001 revisiting of the impact of the Second World War on British social identities. Texts such as these reflect back not only on Jameson’s but also on Benedict Anderson’s hypothesis, advanced some years prior to Jameson’s, and without the same level of critical opposition, namely, that the modern novel is a key site where the nation is articulated.37 For obvious reasons, most notably that gender like the nation is composed by way of fictions, the concept of narrating the self represents a central area of crossover between the study of women’s writing and

in Stories of women
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Irish poetry since 1990
Jerzy Jarniewicz and John McDonagh

. Younger Poets of the Republic of Ireland (Mountrath: Dolmen Press, 1986). 33 David Wheatley, ‘Irish Poetry into the Twenty-First Century’, Cambridge Companion to Contemporary Irish Poetry, ed. Matthew Campbell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 253. 34 Another example being Tom Paulin’s book-length poem on the origins of the Second World War, The Invasion Handbook (London: Faber, 2002). 35 Michael Murphy, Elsewhere (Nottingham: Shoestring Press, 2003). 36 Brown, p. 12. 37 It was in Poland that his first poetry books were published. 38 Derek Mahon

in Irish literature since 1990
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Defining the nation differently
Elleke Boehmer

symbolically cast out of her mother’s house and forced to find her own way. Her punishing exile ends only when the massacres of Partition make her family’s continuing rejection untenable. It is a sign of Virmati’s marginality that events surrounding the struggle for Indian independence and the creation of Pakistan are relayed in the novel by way of external report, at times almost as an official voice-over. Harish the Professor, Virmati’s married lover and then, much later, husband, interprets the progress of the Second World War and its implications for India through

in Stories of women
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Jonathan Atkin

lifelong pacifist, she dates her anti-war feeling from the middle of the war when she was sixteen: ‘I am more a pacifist than a devotee of any other -ism … and I would call it moralistic or ethically based’.119 Her future husband, Ralph Partridge, fought in the war and became a Major in his early twenties but resigned his commission as soon as the war ended, having been convinced on moral grounds that the pacifist argument was ‘overwhelming’, as he stated to the Appeal Tribunal for Conscientious Objectors during the Second World War in 1943. During the earlier war, ‘All

in A war of individuals