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Germany, the use of force and the power of strategic culture
Kerry Longhurst

Germany’s new position in Europe and acquisition of full sovereignty. Instead, through an examination of changing perspectives on the use of force in Germany throughout this period, it can be argued that the ending of the Cold War was not followed by a state of ‘collective infancy’ in Germany akin to that which followed the Second World War. Essentially, none of the foundational elements of the existing strategic culture was fundamentally challenged, disregarded or rendered obsolete, but, as I argue below, rather came to be reinterpreted and reapplied through

in Germany and the use of force
Perspectives on civilisation in Latin America
Jeremy C.A. Smith

 counter-​imagination contextualises Americanism and is common to modernist traditions and subsequent traditions of radical critique and activism. Second, I delineate modernist movements in philosophy, literature and poetry and the arts that made such modernist traditions. They flourished in the first part of the twentieth century. However, after the Second World War, modernism found radical expression in Latin American Marxism, political economy, liberation theology and indigenous social movements. Overall, I contend that modern Latin America has emerged from the cross-​currents, conflicts and

in Debating civilisations
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Michael Lawrence

This chapter examines specific ideological and aesthetic dimensions of the representation of children in American films produced during and directly after the Second World War in relation to the promotion and operations of the United Nations. 1 It addresses how pitiable and vulnerable children from the world’s warzones – specifically groups of orphaned, abandoned and injured children from

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

, and was then briefly mayor of Stepney, in London. He became an MP in 1922, and served as a junior minister in the Labour governments led by Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929–31. As leader of the Labour Party during the Second World War, he was brought into Churchill’s coalition cabinet. After the general election of 1945 had taken place (but before votes had been counted, a delay because of the large numbers of votes from

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

controversies concerning political issues are resolved by adoption of generally acceptable compromises. The term ‘adversary politics’ was applied particularly to the British House of Commons in the post-Second World War period, where the Labour and Conservative parties opposed each other on issues such as state control of industry, comprehensive education and housing policy (e.g. the iron and steel industry was twice nationalised and

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

was popular among liberals and some socialists during the early nineteenth century. After the First World War it was resurrected in the institution of the League of Nations, founded on the principles of national self-determination and collective security. After the Second World War this form of nationalism was embodied in the United Nations and other liberal international bodies set up to regulate human rights and the free

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

is one of the vaguest branches of international law. We are told that intervention is a right; that it is a crime; that it is the rule; that it is the exception; that it is never permissible at all’. 3 Following the Second World War the problem with intervention continued to be discussed in the international law and international relations literature. 4 In the post-Cold War era, with increasing interventionism, interest hardly diminished, the main

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Michael Lawrence and Rachel Tavernor

media culture is beyond the scope of this introduction and book; however, with this collection we intend to understand some of the longer historical, cultural and political contexts that shape how humanitarian relationships have been mediated since the Second World War. As Simon Cottle and Glenda Cooper suggest, ‘media and communications … have entered increasingly and sometimes profoundly into the contemporary field of humanitarianism and this

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Colman

during the war’ and endured well beyond 1945. 10 Anglo-American ties had a number of distinctive features. Firstly, notes Reynolds, there were the consultative ties between the two bureaucracies, which expressed themselves in regular and informal consultations between Washington and London. Secondly, there was the intelligence axis created during the Second World War and revived under the UKUSA agreements of

in A ‘special relationship’?
The Marshall Plan films about Greece
Katerina Loukopoulou

moment in the long history of this relationship; they were part of one of the first post-Second World War audio-visual campaigns to promote a humanitarian cause at a transnational level. The Marshall Plan (MP) is the widely used term to describe the European Recovery Program (ERP), that is the material aid that the United States sent to the devastated economies of Western Europe to help

in Global humanitarianism and media culture