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Daughters of the Empire, mothers in their own homes, 1929–45
Katie Pickles

During the Depression and the Second World War the IODE’s vision for Canada was influenced by Britain’s weakening position in relation to a strengthening Canada. Although the influence of investments and popular culture from the USA was increasing at that time, British immigrants were still valued as superior to those of other races and the IODE promoted its own version of

in Female imperialism and national identity
Sabine Clarke

Second World War: a career in the making”, Canadian Journal of History 16 (1981), 68–85. 10 TNA, CO 852/588/2. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid. 13 C. Whitham, Bitter Rehearsal: British and American Planning for a Post-War West Indies (Westport: Praeger, 2002), p. 38; C. Fraser, Ambivalent Anti-Colonialism: The United States and the Genesis of West Indian Independence, 1940–1964 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994), pp. 59 and 64. 14 Parker

in Science at the end of empire
War memorials, memory and imperial knowledge
Katie Pickles

diverse landscapes, from public squares to quiet cemeteries. As in other ventures, the IODE collaborated with different interest groups, local, national and international. Figure 6.1 shows the IODE assembled, in May 1939, on the eve of the Second World War at the Cenotaph outside of City Hall in Toronto. Paying homage to Canada’s war-dead at stone memorials has always been an important part of the IODE

in Female imperialism and national identity
Defending Cold War Canada
Katie Pickles

: ‘Therefore, may I say that the undeviating purpose of our Order is to foster and maintain our Dominion and maintain for our Dominion and our Empire our way of life, our freedom of choice and, as a matter of fact, all that we connote or imply in our meaning of the word Democracy.’ 11 Britain’s battered post-Second World War economic position and the movement towards independence of Commonwealth

in Female imperialism and national identity
Charles V. Reed

that could not be dictated from Britain, from colonial capitals, or by local social elites. During the twentieth century, they would re-emerge in the demands of Second World War veterans, the claims of the Windrush generation, and British Muslims in the aftermath of the 7/7 bombings. In Britain, the revived public consciousness of the empire resulted from the experiences of the war and anxieties

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
Katie Pickles

president always made a substantial address. Because the national headquarters was in Toronto, at 182 Lowther Street, in a home donated by the Eaton family, the department-store magnates, the IODE’s national presidents have come largely from Toronto, or nearby parts of Ontario. Prior to the Second World War it was not unusual for national presidents to serve for many years. In the postwar period, however, two

in Female imperialism and national identity
Open Access (free)
Sabine Clarke

from this, the forty new laboratories created across the Colonial Empire after the Second World War were said to endow Britain’s colonies with the ability to participate in the international advance of science, and therefore to operate as modern states. Science and scientists took on unprecedented importance for the British Colonial Office after 1940, both in providing solutions to practical issues that arose from the drive for development and also in demonstrating the enduring value of British interventions in the tropics and Britain’s commitment to modernising its

in Science at the end of empire
Sabine Clarke

are politic at a time when the general question of Colonial responsibilities is under widespread criticism and when it is expedient for us to justify our position.’ 2 Interest at the Colonial Office in an expansion of colonial research had in fact existed for some time. While the rise of development as a goal of colonial policy from the 1890s onwards was accompanied by a growing belief in the importance of science and medicine, funds specifically for research were not plentiful before the Second World War. Small ad hoc grants for research were

in Science at the end of empire
Sabine Clarke

synthetics. Chemical firms in Britain had lagged behind those of the US during the interwar period when it came to using components from oil to make their products. The Second World War was the turning point when Britain’s need for aviation fuel led to substantial expansion in domestic oil-refining capacity. Further motivation for increases in capacity came after 1947 when the need to reduce dollar expenditure prompted Esso, Shell and British Petroleum to invest in new refineries, so that by 1954, Britain was the fourth largest refiner of oil in the world. 38 With

in Science at the end of empire
Open Access (free)
Women, internal colonization and indigenous peoples
Katie Pickles

outside of Canada – such as Korea, India and Africa – moving back into Canadian territory. Where aid to India had operated during the first half of the century, in the post-Second World War years medical supplies and technology went to Korea and Africa, and considerable aid to postwar Europe. Extending aid to the Canadian north was part of the territorial completion of Canadian nationalism during the 1940s

in Female imperialism and national identity