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George Philip

means of limiting the power of the state. In contrast, Latin American presidentialism developed a few decades later as a means of asserting state authority. Madisonian presidentialism (after James Madison, 1751–1836) was not and is not the same thing as Bolivarian presidentialism (after Simon Bolivar, ‘the Liberator’). One might roughly identify the first with checks and balances and the second with a leadership principle that is its antithesis. As a result, the formal institutional system of checksand-balances does not really describe how Latin American

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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The study of European Union relations with Mercosur
Arantza Gomez Arana

American countries originated in the Spanish conquest itself and in the institutions established by the Spanish and Portuguese to create an economic base which would consolidate their conquest of the new lands’ (Furtado 1976: 14). When these territories gained independence in the eighteenth century and figures such as Simon Bolivar inspired the revolutions that led to the independence of Latin American countries, the direction of Spanish and Portuguese territories again progressed in different ways. The Portuguese territories, through a transition without revolutions

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur: