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Beowulf translations by Seamus Heaney and Thomas Meyer
David Hadbawnik

, a multitude of slaughter-feasts, terror of troops, rapine and bondage. Heaven swallowed the smoke.) The woman probably does not bear any special relationship to the dead hero – she is not his widow, but a representative figure dressed for mourning and expressing the grief, worry, and uncertainty about the future appropriate to the situation. The ending of the passage, literally ‘heaven smoke swallowed’, is ‘perhaps best read in juxtaposition … of human suffering with

in Dating Beowulf