status from a power perspective. Such
situated positions also affect networking processes and thus knowledge
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Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
A biographical approach
In this chapter I will discuss a particular scientific contribution made
by the archaeologist Hanna Rydh (1891–1964). As the first woman
in Sweden to achieve an archaeological doctorate, she had to navigate
within a male-oriented discipline, which was developing its professional
identity. Striving to earn her
Geographies of networks and
the case of Oscar Montelius and Italy
In this chapter, I aim to highlight the potential of thinking geographically when studying networks and the production of archaeological
knowledge, by considering the contacts in Italy of the Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, see Figure 6.2) and his work on
Oscar Montelius was a pioneer of prehistoric archaeology from
the late nineteenth century onwards. He is mainly known for his
work on typology and chronology. His Om
” in the 1980s (Huyssen 1995 : 14, 20, 25ff). In Sweden, Svante Beckman noted rapid growth in aesthetic and entertainment use of history and heritage, with an ever-larger number of museums and antique markets (Beckman 1993a : 28f). Referring to the rising number of countries that had ratified the World Heritage Convention and the increasing number of World Heritage sites, Thordis Arrhenius concluded that “[t]he inflation of heritage is today a fact” (Arrhenius 2003 : 162). And Rodney Harrison discusses a “heritage boom” and “crisis of accumulation” in late
and an end to Salač’s Francophile leanings.
Gustavsson’s chapter similarly examines international relationships between scholars, in this case between the Swedish savant Oscar
Montelius and his Italian counterparts. Montelius is best known for his
work on seriation and although he is now seen primarily as a ‘Nordic’
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Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
scholar he travelled extensively in Europe and wrote the first work
on prehistoric Italy. Gustavsson’s chapter reveals how much more
Picard’s tenure as director of the school (between 1919 and
1925), its Foreign Section was uniquely diverse (that is, with respect to
nationality). Membres étrangers hailed from Sweden, Denmark, Russia,
Poland, Romania, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland and, of course,
Czechoslovakia. No other director in the history of the French School has
presided over so diverse a Foreign Section as did Picard; Pierre Roussel’s
subsequent directorship saw the Foreign Section dominated by Belgium
and the Netherlands once more. This diversity was in line with French
technical possibilities of salvaging the temples, with several competing proposals, while the waters of the Nile were rising in a menacing manner: a French proposal to protect the temples behind their own dam; an Italian one to raise them in one piece by means of hydraulics; a British one to make them visible under the water; another French one to tow them on a raft behind a dam; and a Swedish one to cut the temples into pieces and subsequently rebuild them at a new site. The Swedish proposal made by VBB (Vattenbyggnadsbyrån; now part of Sweco), which competitors
the later Bronze Age to late Iron Age/Roman period, c. 1200 BC– AD 400, when we see a swell in dated interments in bogs across Ireland and Britain, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland and the Netherlands (Turner and Briggs 1986 : tab. 19; van der Sanden 1996 : fig. 92). It is these latter countries that will form the basis of research here.
As argued above, this study is not only timely but pressing. Peatlands represent the world’s largest natural terrestrial carbon store (Page et al . 2011 ; IUCN 2019 ), with a crucial role to play in carbon sequestration as a
order to be experienced as relevant.
Two examples of tentative World Heritage sites that I have run into in my work as a historical archaeologist are Viking Monuments and Sites, with cooperation between Denmark, Iceland, Latvia, Norway, and Germany, and The Rise of Systematic Biology, with cooperation between Australia, England, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and South Africa. The latter example involves botanical gardens and sites from the eighteenth century, places that are linked to the botanist Carl Linnaeus in Sweden ( whc.unesco.org ). At local, regional, or
justifications for the study of the past, drawing on examples from Sweden and Denmark since the fifteenth century. The great majority reflect how the past has been of use in legitimising the state and its ideology. Native country and nation are thus the most commonly used concepts. Other central concepts are enlightenment, education, revolution, international solidarity – and, since the 1970s, entertainment and leisure activity.
When archaeologists discuss motives, there is generally an ulterior motive somewhere. When, for instance, Michael Shanks and Christopher Tilley
), Cook Islands (2009), South Sudan (2016) and then, most recently, Somalia (2020). The dissemination of the innovation over time may be described as relatively rapid, as 50 % was attained a mere 12 years after the Convention came into being.
It is worth observing that France, as the seat of UNESCO and the World Heritage Centre, joined in 1975 in phase 2 while the Nordic countries, for instance, belong to phase 3 (Norway 1977, Denmark 1979) or phase 4 (Sweden 1985, Finland 1987, Iceland 1995).
At first sight, the innovation process would appear to be complete