. UNDP statistics show that the UK has among the highest levels of
functional illiteracy in the OECD countries. The UK level of functional illiteracy is calculated at 21.8 per cent of all 16–65 year-olds, a level that compares to
20.7 per cent in the US, 14.4 per cent in Germany, 7.5 per cent in Sweden and
29.5 per cent in the Russian Federation (UNDP, 2000: 172). The blurring of
the boundaries between secure and contingent work has also resulted in a
gendered ‘functional flexibility’ that finds women providing contract services
for cleaning, catering and domestic
The bridge, the fund and insurance in Dar es Salaam
( 2015 ). Governing by debt . South Pasadena : Semiotext(e) .
Lindell , I.
Nordström , J.
Byerley , A.
( 2016 ). New city visions and the politics of redevelopment in Dar es Salaam . Uppsala, Sweden : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet .
Lobo-Guerrero , L.
( 2011 ). Insuring
’ (Mahnkopf, 1999: 161).
However, the industrial relations debate in Germany has not taken the
form of Anglo-Saxon hyperflexibility in which trade unions are constrained in
their activities and removed from many workplaces. In contrast to this
Table 4.2 Standardised rates of unemployment (as % of civilian labour
’ (1997: 7-8).
These countries are directly identified as converging around the OECD Jobs
Strategy blueprint for labour flexibility. By contrast, Germany, France,
Belgium, Denmark and Sweden, among others, are criticised for their structural impediments to wage flexibility, their high levels of social transfers, and
their use of active labour market policies: ‘It remains an open question
whether a policy approach that sees public intervention in post-compulsory
education, training and active labour market policies as a substitute for
relative wage flexibility is