A history of forbidden relations

This study brings out the norms and culturally dependent values that formed the basis of the theoretical regulation and the practical handling of incest cases in Sweden 1680–1940, situating this development in a wider European context. It discusses a broad variety of general human subjects that are as important today as they were hundreds of years ago, such as love, death, family relations, religion, crimes, and punishments.

By analysing criminal-case material and applications for dispensation, as well as political and legislative sources, the incest phenomenon is explored from different perspectives over a long time period. It turns out that although the incest debate has been dominated by religious, moral, and later medical beliefs, ideas about love, age, and family hierarchies often influenced the assessment of individual incest cases. These unspoken values could be decisive – sometimes life-determining – for the outcome of various incest cases.

The book will interest scholars from several different fields of historical research, such as cultural history, the history of crime and of sexuality, family history, history of kinship, and historical marriage patterns. The long time period also broadens the number of potential readers. Since the subject concerns general human issues that are as current today as they were three centuries ago, the topic will also appeal to a non-academic audience.

Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg

10 Pandemic flus and vaccination policies in Sweden Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg Introduction During the summer of 2010, unexpected reports of narcolepsy in Swedish children and adolescents after vaccination with the pandemic influenza vaccine Pandemrix came to the attention of the Medical Products Agency (MPA). The main features of this condition are

in The politics of vaccination
Svante Norrhem

4 The uses of French subsidies in Sweden, 1632–1729 Svante Norrhem Introduction1 In his book Tankar om krig i gemen och Sweriges krig i synnerhet (‘Thoughts about war in general and Sweden’s war in particular’), written in 1758 and published in 1767, a civil servant and politician by the name of Anders Nordencrantz (1697–1772) heavily criticized the Swedish acceptance of foreign subsidies. Subsidies become opiates, poisons that delight, corrupt, and drug recipients. Subsidies are like golden hooks pulling the receivers like fish out of their natural environment

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Marie Lennersand and Linda Oja

4 Beyond the witch trials Responses to witchcraft in Sweden Responses to witchcraft in late seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Sweden The aftermath of the witch-hunt in Dalarna Marie Lennersand The witch-hunts of the early modern period must have left a profound mark on many local communities. The intense trials and executions which took place during the second half of the seventeenth century were dreadful events that touched many people. All those involved, from the accused and the witnesses to the judges and the clergy, had to make decisions that changed

in Beyond the witch trials
A summary discussion
Bonnie Clementsson

comprehensive question which this study attempts to answer has to do with the values and cultural ideas that determine which relationships are accepted or defined as forbidden and punishable in a society. In other words, on what norms are the rules actually based? In Sweden the configuration of incest prohibitions has varied from the Middle Ages, when a man was forbidden to marry his deceased wife's sixth cousin according to the matrimonial laws of the Catholic Church, to today's incest prohibitions which only include sexual relationships between members

in Incest in Sweden, 1680–1940
Open Access (free)
Witchcraft and magic in Enlightenment Europe

This book looks at aspects of the continuation of witchcraft and magic in Europe from the last of the secular and ecclesiastical trials during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, through to the nineteenth century. It provides a brief outline of witch trials in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland. By the second half of the seventeenth century, as the witch trials reached their climax in Sweden, belief in the interventionist powers of the Devil had become a major preoccupation of the educated classes. Having acknowledged the slight possibility of real possession by the Devil, Benito Feijoo threw himself wholeheartedly into his real objective: to expose the falseness of the majority of the possessed. The book is concerned with accusations of magic, which were formalised as denunciations heard by the Inquisition of the Archdiocese of Capua, a city twelve miles north of Naples, during the first half of the eighteenth century. One aspect of the study of witchcraft and magic, which has not yet been absorbed into the main stream of literature on the subject, is the archaeological record of the subject. As a part of the increasing interest in 'popular' culture, historians have become more conscious of the presence of witchcraft after the witch trials. The aftermath of the major witch trials in Dalarna, Sweden, demonstrates how the authorities began the awkward process of divorcing themselves from popular concerns and beliefs regarding witchcraft.

Sweden and the lesser powers in the long eighteenth century
Erik Bodensten

5 The problems with receiving subsidies: Sweden and the lesser powers in the long eighteenth century Erik Bodensten Introduction: Why the lesser powers sought subsidies During the long eighteenth century, subsidies constituted a necessary, albeit insufficient, method for lesser powers to achieve political and dynastic objectives. In the context of imperial and European politics, these subsidies were crucial for the ability of minor German states to defend themselves and act more proactively and offensively, in spite of their otherwise significantly limited

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Bonnie Clementsson

The early modern judicial system The secular judicial structure In comparison to many European countries, the Swedish judicial system was organised in an unusually uniform manner during the early modern period. In broad outline, it consisted of three secular judicial bodies. The first body was the local court, tinget (the Thing ), also called häradsrätten (the hundred court) in the countryside or rådhusrätten (the municipal court) in the towns. The häradshövding (hundred

in Incest in Sweden, 1680–1940
Erik Thomson

, Morera understates Hoeufft’s importance and the importance of subsidies to Hoeufft’s business.8 Hoeufft remitted subsidies not only to the United Provinces but also to many of France’s other allies during most of the Thirty Years’ War, including Sweden, Hesse-Cassel, and Transylvania.9 In this chapter, I focus on Hoeufft’s role as the organizer of subsidy payments from the king of France to most of the French king’s allies. I will touch upon other aspects of his career as a merchant of ships, grain, arms, and munitions, a banker engaged in royal finances, a committed

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Svante Norrhem and Erik Thomson

variations of subsidy alliances. The most frequent as well as important subsidizers – in terms of sums – were France, Spain, the United Provinces, and England. On the receiving end Sweden, Denmark, the Swiss confederation, the United Provinces, and a number of German and northern Italian states stand out.4 The 2 Mark Greengrass, Christendom Destroyed: Europe 1517–1648 (London: Allen Lane, 2014), p. 101. 3 Richard Bonney and W.M. Ormrod, ‘Crises, Revolutions and Self-sustained Growth: Towards a Conceptual Model of Change in Fiscal History’, in Crises, Revolutions and Self

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789