10 Pandemic flus and vaccination policies in Sweden
Lundgren and Martin
During the summer of 2010, unexpected
reports of narcolepsy in Swedish children and adolescents after vaccination
with the pandemic influenza vaccine Pandemrix came to the attention of the
Medical Products Agency (MPA). The main features of this condition are
Fallacies ’, Thorax , 52 ( 1997 ), 820 – 827 , p. 822. In 2012, the Global Lung Function Initiative was sponsored by the European Respiratory Society to tabulate new reference values for spirometry. See Backman , H. , Lindberg , A. , Sovijarvi , A. , Larsson , K.‚ et al., ‘ Evaluation of the Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 Reference Values in a Swedish Population Sample ’, BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 15 : 26 ( 2015 ), 1602 – 1611 .
85 Stanojevic , S. , Wade , A. , and Stocks , J. , ‘ Reference Values for Lung Function: Past, Present and Future
In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.
, the Danish Statens Serum Institut (State
Serum Institute or SSI) was established to produce diphtheria antitoxin in
1902, and a Swedish institute (SBL) in 1909. In the Netherlands, production of
the anti-toxin began in a private institution, the Bacterio-therapeutisch
Instituut. However, problems in meeting national needs during the First World
War, coupled with political anxieties regarding security of supply and a sense
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg
status. This chapter links the role of public figures and
ideas of ‘anti-vaccination’ to the erosion of trust within, and
between, strata of the British class system. In modern Sweden, with its rather
system, and which began to vaccinate early, vaccination has tended to adhere to
the idea of Swedish national ‘solidarity’. Britta Lundgren and
Martin Holmberg's chapter shows this ideal eroded by a scandal that surrounded
Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)
Anna La Torre, Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti, and Cecilia Sironi
Red Cross sent foreign operators
from several countries in defence of Ethiopia against the Italian occupation. About a hundred actively contributed as doctors and nurses.
Among them, the Swedish Count Carl Gustav von Rosen should
be mentioned.39 He left Stockholm with an air ambulance, landing
in Addis Ababa, and took part in several missions (up to fifty-five
flights and eighty-one serious injuries transported), ‘evacuating the
wounded and transporting drugs on both sides, until an Italian aircraft destroyed the device in the field of Quoram, although it clearly
A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s
nominated by medical societies
and the pharmaceutical industry.
Desmond Pond, on the other hand, believed that the national
committee should be more ‘inter-disciplinary … with a ‘lay (i.e.,
non science) chairman’.35 James Gowans also claimed that public
trust could only be ensured through ‘strong lay representation’.36
In endorsing a ‘lay-dominated’ committee, Gowans drew on information that the MRC had obtained from France and Sweden.37
In a letter to Donald Acheson, the government’s CMO, Gowans
claimed that documents on French and Swedish ethics committees
imperative to meet its challenge successfully.
State paternalism and socialised medicine were not unique to the
Eastern part of Europe. In the post-war era, national health care schemes and
states’ strong intervention in health matters were on the rise in
countries such as Great Britain, France and Sweden. As Lundberg and Holmberg
show (Chapter 10 in this book), it
is a historical heritage that countries, like Sweden, still grapple with
was calling for more systematic and in-depth statistical inquiries to supplement the existing mortality statistics, the likes of which, including causes of death, had been collected in Finland since the 1740s. In fact, the Finnish and Swedish birth and mortality statistics are the oldest continuously collected population statistics in the world.
Gathered under the heading of ‘moral statistics’, the series of numbers representing crimes, suicide, and other forms of deviance consolidated a new way of regarding human
analysis to an examination of the chemical functioning of the brain and the role of dopamine,
which was first synthesised at the Wellcome Laboratories in 1910.
At that time dopamine was believed to be a precursor of the catecholamine neurotransmitters responsible for chemically transmitting information between neurons in the brain. But the biological function of dopamine as a neurotransmitter itself was discovered by a Swedish pharmacologist, the Nobel Laureate Arvid