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Arantza Gomez Arana

, Finland and Sweden joining the EU. However, the single largest enlargement in the history of the EU took place in 2004 when ten Central and Eastern Europe countries became EU members. From 1989 until the enlargement in 2004, the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union into several independent republics had been the main focus EU external relations, to the point that it had an effect on other external relations, including external relations with Latin America. The enlargement of the EU in 2007 is not discussed in any detail here because it did not have an

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

Ecology Party – ‘Live Differently’ (Belgium: Flemish-speaking)/Anders Gaan Leven AN National Alliance (Italy)/Alleanza Nazionale B ’90/Die Grünen Alliance ’90–The Greens (known as ‘the Greens’) (Germany)/Bündnis ’90/Die Grünen BNP British National Party BSP Belgian Socialist Party (Flemish-speaking)/Belgische Socialistische Partij C Centre Party (Sweden)/Centerpartiet CADJ (Luxembourg) see: ADR

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Armando Barrientos and Martin Powell

European elections, he argued that at least four distinct paths can be identified in Western Europe: the market-orientated way of New Labour; the market and consensus-orientated way of the Dutch polder model; the reform–welfare state way of the Swedish and Danish social democrats; and the statist way of the French socialists. He claims that no comparably clear profile can be

in The Third Way and beyond
Elana Wilson Rowe

in global governance settings (Jones and Clark, 2015; McConnell et al., 2012; Hakli and Kallio, 2014). Frame 1: a cooperative Arctic in rough winds The Arctic as a zone of peace At the 2013 Kiruna ministerial session, Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov recalled a special ‘symbolic trip’ of the senior officials of the Arctic Council to the North Pole in April of that year. The trip was organised by the Russian Security Council and accompanied by a well-​known polar explorer and Russian Arctic policy actor, Artur Chilingarov. Chilingarov had been part of the Swedish

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

President. 25 April 1976 New, democratic, constitution adopted in Portugal. 1 May 1980 Queen Beatrix becomes monarch of the Netherlands, following the abdication of her mother, Queen Juliana. 21 October 1981 Papandreou forms Greece’s first ever Socialist-led government. 28 February 1986 Assassination of Palme, Sweden’s Prime Minister. 8 June

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
The European union’s policy in the field of arms export controls
Sibylle Bauer and Eric Remacle

Court of First Instance to annul the Council decision made at the ministerial level and to order the Council to bear the costs of the case (European Court of Justice 1999 , para. 32). The Court ruled positively regarding both aspects and requested the Council to consider partial access to the document (para. 87). The Council, supported by Spain, appealed against this ruling, while Heidi Hautala was supported by Denmark, France, Finland, Sweden and

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

Commissioner per member state, appointment of the Commission by common accord of national governments, strengthening of the President, no hierarchy of Commissioners UK Limit to the number of Commissioners Spain Limit to the number of Commissioners Portugal One Commissioner per member state, more Vice-Presidents, internal reorganisation of the Commission Austria One Commissioner per member state, more Vice-Presidents, internal reorganisation of the Commission Sweden One Commissioner per member state, more Vice-Presidents, internal reorganisation of the Commission

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

-right government depends on its support for a parliamentary majority, the DF now holds a key position within the party system. Finland Population 5.2 million (2000) Capital Helsinki Territory 338,145 sq. km GDP per capita US$24,414 (2000) Unemployment 9.7 per cent of workforce (2000) State form Republic. Finland was part of the Kingdom of Sweden until 1809 when it became an autonomous Grand Duchy under

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

capably with the many challenges of post-war diplomacy and the Cold War. He was regarded as a stalwart of the moderate centre of the Labour Party, attracting the scorn of left-wingers as a result. Bevin died in 1951. [See also: Attlee; Churchill] Bildt, Carl Prime Minister of Sweden, 1991–94 and international statesman. Bildt was born in 1949 in Halmstad. He studied at the University of

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Elana Wilson Rowe

‘greatest respect’, to explain why this is the case, as it is Russia who has opposed action on black carbon (Arctic Athabaskan Council, 2013). There are few other settings in the world where a native chief can call the Minister of Foreign Affairs to account. Likewise, the Swedish Saami representative used the home-​turf ministerial meeting to present a negative picture of indigenous rights in Sweden: here in the Giron area, industrial development  –​in particular mining  –​poses a tremendous challenge to the local Saami reindeer herding people. In our delegation, we have

in Arctic governance