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Marie Lennersand and Linda Oja

4 Beyond the witch trials Responses to witchcraft in Sweden Responses to witchcraft in late seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Sweden The aftermath of the witch-hunt in Dalarna Marie Lennersand The witch-hunts of the early modern period must have left a profound mark on many local communities. The intense trials and executions which took place during the second half of the seventeenth century were dreadful events that touched many people. All those involved, from the accused and the witnesses to the judges and the clergy, had to make decisions that changed

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Witchcraft and magic in Enlightenment Europe

This book looks at aspects of the continuation of witchcraft and magic in Europe from the last of the secular and ecclesiastical trials during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, through to the nineteenth century. It provides a brief outline of witch trials in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland. By the second half of the seventeenth century, as the witch trials reached their climax in Sweden, belief in the interventionist powers of the Devil had become a major preoccupation of the educated classes. Having acknowledged the slight possibility of real possession by the Devil, Benito Feijoo threw himself wholeheartedly into his real objective: to expose the falseness of the majority of the possessed. The book is concerned with accusations of magic, which were formalised as denunciations heard by the Inquisition of the Archdiocese of Capua, a city twelve miles north of Naples, during the first half of the eighteenth century. One aspect of the study of witchcraft and magic, which has not yet been absorbed into the main stream of literature on the subject, is the archaeological record of the subject. As a part of the increasing interest in 'popular' culture, historians have become more conscious of the presence of witchcraft after the witch trials. The aftermath of the major witch trials in Dalarna, Sweden, demonstrates how the authorities began the awkward process of divorcing themselves from popular concerns and beliefs regarding witchcraft.

Open Access (free)
Beyond the witch trials
Owen Davies and Willem de Blécourt

abuse that secular Catholic intellectuals threw at the theologians who clung fervently to the notion of witchcraft.9 It was likewise used by intellectuals in Protestant countries. It was also a label applied to the cultures of the ‘lower orders’ as a means of clearly demarcating the world of the ‘ignorant’ from the educated, the ‘irrational’ from the rational. In this sense ‘superstition’ became the antithesis of modernity. Marie Lennersand’s innovative account of the aftermath of the major witch trials in Dalarna, Sweden, demonstrates how the authorities began this

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
A male strategy
Soili-Maria Olli

6 Beyond the witch trials The Devil’s pact The Devil’s pact: a male strategy Soili-Maria Olli By the second half of the seventeenth century, as the witch trials reached their climax in Sweden, belief in the interventionist powers of the Devil had become not only a major preoccupation of the educated classes, but also seems to have considerably exercised the minds of the wider population, illiterate as well as literate. It is apparent, however, that different groups in society held different views as to the nature and consequences of dealing with the Devil

in Beyond the witch trials
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Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo

1 Beyond the witch trials Marking (dis)order Marking (dis)order: witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland Raisa Maria Toivo What do witchcraft and witch trials tell us about power and social hierarchy? Witch trials have often enough been explained in terms of social relations and schisms, particularly in local contexts. In a highly competitive world, disagreements resulted from and caused both attacks by suspected witches and accusations made against them. It has often been noted that in Sweden and

in Beyond the witch trials
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

470 150 24 Venice 1550–1650 714 224 24 S. Sweden 1635–1754 77 25 25 Fribourg 1607–1683 103 59 36 Zeeland 1450–1729 19 11 37 Pays de Vaud 1539–1670 62 45 42 Finland 1520–1699 325 316 49 Burgundy 1580–1642 76 83 52 Estonia 1520–1729 77 116 60 Normandy 1564–1660 103 278 73 Iceland 1625–1685 10 110 92 Although it is difficult to draw certain kinds of specific conclusions from the comparison of such diverse data sets,several features stand out. First, for a phenomenon described by

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Alison Rowlands

vast financial contributions from the peasants and citizenry as they went. The worst year was 1631, when the city was first taken over by Swedish troops, then besieged and captured by Catholic League troops under Tilly. By 1648 Rothenburg had been ruined financially, while its hinterland had been devastated. Scores of houses and many churches lay in ruins; most things of value, including livestock, had been stolen from those peasants who had been unable to flee to the city when the soldiers came; many of its parishes had been without pastors for long periods of time

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Brian Hoggard

custom is but another link in the chain of evidence regarding foundation sacrifices.39 Ó Súilleabháin’s conclusions were disputed by Albert Sandklef of Sweden who undertook research into the custom across Scandinavia. He found that it was a common practice in southern Scandinavia to conceal horse skulls and pots beneath threshing barn floors, because it helped produce a pleasant ringing tone while threshing. Sandklef ’s ultimate conclusion was that horse skulls were only concealed for acoustic purposes and that the foundation sacrifice theory was invalid.40 Eurwyn

in Beyond the witch trials
witchcraft on the borderline of religion and magic
Éva Pócs

Witchcraft’, in Willem de Blécourt, Ronald Hutton and Jean La Fontaine, Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Twentieth Century (London, 1999) pp. 188–91; Per Sörlin, ‘Wicked Arts’. Witchcraft and Magic Trials in Southern Sweden, 1635–1754 (Leiden, Boston and Cologne, 1999), pp. 128–77. 7 From the Romanian word cãlugãr (monk

in Witchcraft Continued
The idioms and risks of defiance in the trial of Margaretha Horn, 1652
Alison Rowlands

imperial and Catholic League troops were quartered in and marched through the city’s hinterland, then in 1631 Rothenburg was taken by the Swedes and then by imperial forces in what became known as Rothenburg’s 196 WITCHCRAFT NARRATIVES IN GERMANY year of misery and lamentation. Between 1631 and 1635 and again between 1640 and 1648 Rothenburg was at the centre of the Franconian war-zone, with Bavarian, Swedish, French and imperial troops marching through and living off its land. By 1648 about 70 per cent of the hinterland’s population was dead or had fled the area

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany