Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

ones. The first question concerns the legality–legitimacy spectrum. Is legality through UN authorization indispensable? Is non-authorized intervention by definition illegal or is it perhaps legal given an alternative reading of the UN Charter? 37 Can intervention be condoned if it appears legitimate even though it is technically illegal, as the Independent International Commission on Kosovo concluded in its detailed report? 38 Another tack is the

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

humanitarian purposes in certain exceptional cases, thereby bypassing the cardinal norm of non-intervention (see table 4.1 ). According to Wilhelm Grewe’s assessment, in the nineteenth century ‘the principle of humanitarian intervention increasingly absorbed all other grounds of intervention (with the exception of contractual permission and self-help)’. 12 This tendency in law and practice is striking, for, prior to the UN Charter and the international law of

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century