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Evolution of the normative basis
Eşref Aksu

preferences of key actors interacted in intra-state peacekeeping environments in the early 1960s, and juxtapose the ensuing normative synthesis with the ideational attributes of the 1990s, which took shape in a different historical structural setting. Emerging normative basis on the eve of double ‘peaks’ The emergence of UN peacekeeping missions can be traced almost as far back as

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Author: Eşref Aksu

This study explores the normative dimension of the evolving role of the United Nations in peace and security and, ultimately, in governance. What is dealt with here is both the UN's changing raison d'être and the wider normative context within which the organisation is located. The study looks at the UN through the window of one of its most contentious, yet least understood, practices: active involvement in intra-state conflicts as epitomised by UN peacekeeping. Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the ‘historical structural’ approach, it seeks to understand how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's role with regard to such conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state ‘peacekeeping environments’, and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One of the original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of ‘normative basis’ revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter such as state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development.

Eşref Aksu

normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts has evolved unevenly but appreciably in terms of both objectives and authority, with the shift in the pattern of prescribed functions emerging as one important indicator of this change. Objectives were conceptualised here with reference to four key principles enshrined in the UN Charter, namely peace and security, state

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

normative basis of UN peacekeeping and the UN’s evolving role in world politics. The literature on the UN’s Cambodia experience has rightly pointed to the ‘comprehensive’ nature of the mission. What is less well understood is the normative meaning and implications of this comprehensiveness, which is what this chapter seeks to elucidate. Here we explore the local, regional and global interests

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

would be likely to press for a specific course of UN action. Those which supply personnel for a given UN peacekeeping operation would also require attention, since they could exert influence both in the peacekeeping theatre and on the floor of the General Assembly. Regional IGOs almost always express opinions as to how intra-state conflicts in their respective regions should be handled and

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Problematising the normative connection
Eşref Aksu

assume a special identity and role in world politics. A closer examination of the evolution of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts – especially between the two most active and critical periods of UN peacekeeping: the early 1960s and the early 1990s – suggests that the role assigned to the UN in intra-state conflict management begs more than the explanations offered so far. It suggests in the first

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Adjusting to life after the Cold War
Kerry Longhurst

Bundeswehr’s role. The UNTAC mission to Cambodia in May 1992, with around 140 Bundeswehr soldiers, saw Germany participating actively in a UN peacekeeping mission, and with the opposition’s approval. The Cambodia deployment signified Germany’s growing willingness to shoulder part of the security burden and was viewed by the new Defence Minister Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 60 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 60 Germany and the use of force Volker Rühe as ‘ein Beitrag zu einem neuen Kapitel deutscher Verantwortung’ (a contribution to a new chapter in German

in Germany and the use of force
Matthew S. Weinert

both (e.g. apartheid South Africa, Southern Rhodesia, North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Iran), the sovereign prerogatives of which have been stripped away or significantly curtailed. Failing states with substantial UN peacekeeping and peace-enforcement operations (e.g. Somalia, the Democratic Republic of Congo) occupy a lower-middle tier, while countries administered by the United

in Recognition and Global Politics
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

. Peacebuilding strategies, however, have not been external to these processes. The UN and the contradictions of peacebuilding The UN’s peacebuilding strategies in the DRC are more reflective of the evolution of frameworks for conflict resolution than of the actual evolution of the conflict. Having been reluctant to intervene for a number of years, the UN turned the DRC into one of the first ‘laboratories’ for post-conflict statebuilding (Zeebroek 2008). After the more significant deployment of UN peacekeeping forces in 2001, the two missions – MONUC (until 2010) and MONUSCO

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Eşref Aksu

T HE CYPRUS CONFLICT , too, emerged out of a colonial context. In Cyprus, some 6,500 peacekeepers were deployed at a time when, as a result of the Congo experience, several international actors were sceptical of UN peacekeeping. 1 As of 2002, the Cyprus mission was still continuing. However, its nature had changed considerably since the Turkish intervention in 1974

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change