Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Polio in Eastern Europe
Dora Vargha

Hungary, in the USSR, in Czechoslovakia and the German Democratic Republic. Papers Presented at the Hungarian-Soviet Medical Conference September 24–30, 1960 , ed. J. Weissfeiler (Budapest: Publishing House of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1961). 32 F. Prezmycki, ‘Poland’, in Minculescu, A Ragályos

in The politics of vaccination
Robert Mackay

. conclusion.p65 263 16/09/02, 09:28 264 EXPLANATIONS Notes 1 P. Summerfield, Reconstructing Women’s Wartime Lives (Manchester University Press, 1998), p. 96. 2 In a comparison of resource mobilization in Britain, Germany, the USA and the USSR, M. Harrison concluded that Britain had 45.3 per cent of its working population in war-related work, alongside the USA’s 35.4 per cent and Germany’s 37.6 per cent and the USSR’s 54 per cent. See M. Harrison, ‘Resource Mobilization for World War II: the USA, UK. USSR, and Germany’, The Economic History Review, vol. 41, no. 2, 1988

in Half the battle
The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958
Paul Greenough

lymph under refrigeration, the vaccine furnished by the Soviet Union (USSR) came freeze-dried – a promising new mode unaffected by ambient temperatures. 24 Smaller amounts of cholera vaccine were also sent, including one million doses from the People's Republic of China. 25 Table 1.1 Major donors of smallpox vaccine to East Pakistan, spring 1958

in The politics of vaccination
Legality and legitimacy
Dominic McGoldrick

four Allied occupation zones under Control Council Law No. 10, which allowed each occupying authority to carry out trials of persons held in its custody. Individual states that held war crimes trials in Europe and in Asia included the US,9 the UK,10 Australia, Nationalist China, France, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland, and the USSR.11 Since the 1940s, war crimes trials have been spasmodic at the national level but in the 1980s and 1990s there was a resurgence of prosecutions in Australia,12 Canada,13 and a number of European states.14 The passage of more than half a

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
William Muraskin

. 13 The Alma-Ata Declaration of 1978 emerged as a major milestone of the twentieth century in the field of public health, and it identified primary health care as the key to the attainment of the goal of ‘Health for All’. See WHO, ‘Declaration of Alma-Ata. International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma- Ata, USSR, 6–12 September 1978’, www

in The politics of vaccination
Defending Cold War Canada
Katie Pickles

always a necessity. A vivid example was the IODE’s reaction to the visit of the Very Reverend Hewlett Johnson, the dean of Canterbury. The ‘Red Dean’ was worrisome because as ‘a tireless apologist for the USSR’ his cross-country speaking tour of Canada in 1948 ‘attracted large “respectable” audiences and inspired the formation of groups that became local branches of the Peace Congress’. 40

in Female imperialism and national identity
Sabine Clarke

Nigeria, with the aim, ‘to modernize it swiftly by deploying large economic resources for the region – after the TVA model or the alleged achievements of the USSR in its “colonial territories”’. 40 This proposal was firmly rejected by Caine, Bourdillon and Howitt, and instead Caine called for the rejection of the, ‘“revolutionary” industrialization of selected territories’, in favour of ‘evolutionary development of a variety of industries in a large number of dependencies’. The idea of the gradual evolution of industry indicated that much of the initiative for the

in Science at the end of empire
Martin D. Moore

praise in Britain during the 1930s: E. A. Steele, ‘The treatment of diabetics in the USSR’, Diabetic Journal , 1:11 (1937), 16–18. 45 C. Webster, The Health Services Since the War, Volume I: Problems of Health Care, The National Health Service Before 1957 (London: HMSO, 1988). 46 M. D. Moore

in Balancing the self
Jonathan Colman

Vice-President, who was on a visit to London, that ‘the key to peace’ in Vietnam ‘lay through the Soviet Union and the key to the Soviet Union lay with Britain’. He felt that in February he had had ‘a real opportunity to act as a middleman between the US and USSR to reach a negotiated settlement’. Wilson said that he had been ‘considering the possibility of moving toward the middle, between the two nations, on Vietnamese

in A ‘special relationship’?