The politics of value and valuation in South Africa’s urban waste
Henrik Ernstson, Mary Lawhon, Anesu Makina, Nate Millington, Kathleen Stokes, and Erik Swyngedouw
notorious of these CDM waste-to-landfill projects is the Durban Bisasar Road Landfill project (Bond, 2007 ; Couth et al., 2011 ), but nine other projects have been approved by the South African Designated Authority as of April 2017 (SADNA, 2017 ). Eight were eventually registered with the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the institutional linchpin for managing the CDM architecture. Thus, a first observation is that while South Africa initially seemed to look like a perfect country for the rolling-out of CDM projects, as it has a
A Toilet Revolution and its socio-eco-technical entanglements
residents forced to defecate in the open in China’s cities has been reported to have doubled between 1990 and 2008 (World Health Organization (WHO)/UnitedNations Child Agency (UNICEF), 2010 ). More recent statistics indicate that 86 per cent of urban residents had access to ‘at least basic’ sanitation in 2015 – up from 77 per cent in 2000 – and that 73 per cent of urban residents accessed ‘safely managed’ sanitation facilities (WHO/UNICEF, 2017 ). Yet an estimated 17 million households still did not have access to a private or public ‘sanitary toilet’ (Cheng et al
acknowledges that ‘the impact of globalisation on poor people
varies widely’ (Department for International Development, 2000: 18), the
UnitedNations equates a globalising world with ‘new threats to human
security – sudden and hurtful disruptions in the pattern of daily life’ (UnitedNations Development Programme (UNDP), cited in Held and McGrew, 2000)
and the World Bank states that ‘widening global disparities have increased the
sense of deprivation and injustice for many’ (2001: vi). In every case, however,
the acknowledgement of inequity is qualified by judgements on
Analysing the linkages and exploring possibilities for improving health and wellbeing
life’ (Food and Agriculture Organization of the UnitedNations (FAO), 2009 : 1). The reality in African cities is very different. A survey of food security in eleven southern African cities found 76 per cent of sampled households to be moderately or severely food-insecure, in other words they often do not have enough food to eat for their minimum dietary needs (Frayne et al., 2010 ). An estimated 47 per cent of residents in Nairobi, Kenya, are estimated to be food-insecure, and food insecurity is highest in slum areas: for example, 85 per cent of residents of slum
From an ‘infrastructural turn’ to the platform logics of
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
to represent the range of formal organisations of cities in national and international affairs. These networks cover a wide range of alliances, consortia and coalitions, constituting the basis for formal and informal modes of exchange, learning and conversation. They range from the C40 network of the world's megacities committed to addressing climate change or grassroots networks such as Slum Dwellers International (SDI) to more formal structures, such as the United Cities and Local Government, more curatorial institutions working under the aegis of the United
The bridge, the fund and insurance in Dar es Salaam
Strathern (ed.), Audit cultures: Anthropological studies in accountability, ethics and the academy, 1–18 . Abingdon : Routledge .
Sy , A.N.R.
( 2017 ). Leveraging African pension funds for financing infrastructure development . Washington, DC : African Growth Initiative of the Brookings Institution and the UnitedNations Office of the Special Advisor on Africa .
Weiss , B.
feminisation of work that has accompanied global restructuring makes it
particularly important that we ‘see women’ as actors in global restructuring,
and that we ‘recognize gender’ in terms of the webs of power at work within
the process of change (Murphy, 1996; Marchand and Runyan, 2000: 225). At
one level, then, this implies making womens’ experiences and activities visible
in our analyses: ‘$16 trillion of global output is invisible, $11 trillion produced
by women’ (UnitedNations Human Development Programme, 1995: 97).
Here it is the non-monetised care, family and