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A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

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home, or at the highest level of geopolitics in an organisation like the United Nations. From the nineteenth century onwards, a wide range of efforts to formalise the co-operative impulse in the arrangement of social, economic and political relations came to the fore in a response to ameliorate the worst effects released by industrialisation. This book is an attempt to outline a history of one of these formalised efforts attempted in Ireland at the end of the nineteenth century. The history of the co-operative movement in Ireland is one that

in Civilising rural Ireland
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Europe’s ‘zero hour’

, which, thanks to de Gaulle’s skilful policies, had gained major-power status as an occupying power of Germany and a permanent seat on the newly formed United Nations’ Security Council. Such reconciliation was all the more easy since demands by France for war reparations from Germany had been substantially tempered by the other Western war allies – the United States and the United Kingdom – who were determined not to repeat the mistakes of the Versailles Treaty of 1919, in which enormous (though eventually reduced and abandoned) war reparations by Germany had added to

in Destination Europe
Legality and legitimacy

of a conflict between the obligations of the Members of the United Nations under, the present Charter and their obligations under any other international agreement, the obligations under the present Charter shall prevail’ overrode any rights of Libya under the Montreal Convention on aircraft highjacking.110 Presumably, given that SC Resolution 827 (1993) was a binding decision adopted under Chapter VII, then the same argument would apply. The ICTY president explained that a few countries have laid down an ad hoc procedure, while others planned to apply mutatis

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
A twenty-first century trial?

2001 by the local authorities after a 26hour siege of his presidential villa in Belgrade.9 On 29 June 2001, he was transferred to the ICTY and detained on remand at the United Nations Detention Unit in Scheveningen, The Hague. He was kept in solitary confinement for a month. Throughout his incarceration he was been subject to constant electronic surveillance. His initial appearances in respect of the indictments took place on 3 July 2001 (the Kosovo indictment), 29 October 2001 (the Croatia indictment), and 11 December 2001 (the Bosnia indictment). II Courtroom

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
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accepted the conditions for a ceasefire belatedly agreed among the members of the United Nations’ Security 8 Council. On NATO’s side the war was waged entirely from the air to avoid the delays, cost and potential casualties among troops and civilians associated with a land-based invasion of Kosovo (or even Yugoslavia) – a process during which NATO’s fragile inner cohesion could easily have frayed. This, however, inadvertently became an excuse for Serb militias and even regular Yugoslav troops to accelerate their ‘ethnic cleansing’, driving additional thousands of ethnic

in Destination Europe
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, pan-European security architecture in the widest meaning of the term. It is confusing in the sense that there are many presumptive architects – or architectural companies – with considerable shareholder overlap. They include the EU, NATO, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe, the OECD, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (and what remains of the Western European Union). Sometimes these ‘interlocking’ institutions have rather given the impression of being ‘interblocking’. However, even if no coherent

in Destination Europe
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‘a powerful solvent of class antagonism’; and that by showing they ‘could take it’ the people believed ‘they were already on the way to winning the war’. Nearly twenty years later, Taylor had not altered his view: ‘We were a united nation. Despite our fears we were convinced that we should win in the end. Strangers stopped me in the street and said: “Poor old Hitler. He’s done for himself this time, now that he has taken us on”.’10 Taylor wrote of morale only in the context of the Emergency of 1940–41, seeming to take as read that it remained steady thereafter. But

in Half the battle

began to take shape. It is also within this new model that the concept of autism was adopted widely as a global category and an international model for thinking about individual children’s atypical development. In the same year that the Children’s Act was passed in Britain, the United Nations issued a Convention on the Rights of the Child. The 1989 Convention was unanimously

in The metamorphosis of autism

193; P. H. Peckover to Élie Ducommun, 5 October 1903, Document 3, Box 42, IPB 1892–1914, International Peace Movement, League of Nations Archives, United Nations Library, Geneva, Switzerland (hereafter IPB). 10 P. H. Peckover to Mlle Montaudon, 5 October 1910, Document 4, Box 193; P. H. Peckover to Mlle Montaudon, 5 July 1910, Document 3, Box 42; see also P. H. Peckover to Élie Ducommun, 23 March 1904, Document 3, Box 93, IPB. 11 P. H. Peckover to Captain Siccardi, 21 March 1891, WLPA, Box 4, Folder 3, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, microfilm copy in Wisbech

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’