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A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Patrick Doyle

home, or at the highest level of geopolitics in an organisation like the United Nations. From the nineteenth century onwards, a wide range of efforts to formalise the co-operative impulse in the arrangement of social, economic and political relations came to the fore in a response to ameliorate the worst effects released by industrialisation. This book is an attempt to outline a history of one of these formalised efforts attempted in Ireland at the end of the nineteenth century. The history of the co-operative movement in Ireland is one that

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
Europe’s ‘zero hour’
Kjell M. Torbiörn

, which, thanks to de Gaulle’s skilful policies, had gained major-power status as an occupying power of Germany and a permanent seat on the newly formed United Nations’ Security Council. Such reconciliation was all the more easy since demands by France for war reparations from Germany had been substantially tempered by the other Western war allies – the United States and the United Kingdom – who were determined not to repeat the mistakes of the Versailles Treaty of 1919, in which enormous (though eventually reduced and abandoned) war reparations by Germany had added to

in Destination Europe
Legality and legitimacy
Dominic McGoldrick

of a conflict between the obligations of the Members of the United Nations under, the present Charter and their obligations under any other international agreement, the obligations under the present Charter shall prevail’ overrode any rights of Libya under the Montreal Convention on aircraft highjacking.110 Presumably, given that SC Resolution 827 (1993) was a binding decision adopted under Chapter VII, then the same argument would apply. The ICTY president explained that a few countries have laid down an ad hoc procedure, while others planned to apply mutatis

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
A twenty-first century trial?
Dominic McGoldrick

2001 by the local authorities after a 26hour siege of his presidential villa in Belgrade.9 On 29 June 2001, he was transferred to the ICTY and detained on remand at the United Nations Detention Unit in Scheveningen, The Hague. He was kept in solitary confinement for a month. Throughout his incarceration he was been subject to constant electronic surveillance. His initial appearances in respect of the indictments took place on 3 July 2001 (the Kosovo indictment), 29 October 2001 (the Croatia indictment), and 11 December 2001 (the Bosnia indictment). II Courtroom

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

accepted the conditions for a ceasefire belatedly agreed among the members of the United Nations’ Security 8 Council. On NATO’s side the war was waged entirely from the air to avoid the delays, cost and potential casualties among troops and civilians associated with a land-based invasion of Kosovo (or even Yugoslavia) – a process during which NATO’s fragile inner cohesion could easily have frayed. This, however, inadvertently became an excuse for Serb militias and even regular Yugoslav troops to accelerate their ‘ethnic cleansing’, driving additional thousands of ethnic

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

, pan-European security architecture in the widest meaning of the term. It is confusing in the sense that there are many presumptive architects – or architectural companies – with considerable shareholder overlap. They include the EU, NATO, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe, the OECD, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (and what remains of the Western European Union). Sometimes these ‘interlocking’ institutions have rather given the impression of being ‘interblocking’. However, even if no coherent

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Robert Mackay

‘a powerful solvent of class antagonism’; and that by showing they ‘could take it’ the people believed ‘they were already on the way to winning the war’. Nearly twenty years later, Taylor had not altered his view: ‘We were a united nation. Despite our fears we were convinced that we should win in the end. Strangers stopped me in the street and said: “Poor old Hitler. He’s done for himself this time, now that he has taken us on”.’10 Taylor wrote of morale only in the context of the Emergency of 1940–41, seeming to take as read that it remained steady thereafter. But

in Half the battle
Open Access (free)
Natural resources and development – which histories matter?
Mick Moore

, Tokyo, New York, Paris: United Nations University Press, pp. 35–52 Gervasoni, Carlos (2010). ‘A rentier theory of subnational regimes: fiscal federalism, democracy, and Authoritarianism in the Argentine provinces’, World Politics 62(2): 302–40 Haggard, Stephen, Andrew MacIntyre and Lydia Tiede (2008). ‘The rule of law and economic development’, Annual Review of Political Science 11: 205–34 Humphreys, Macartan, Jeffrey Sachs and Joseph Stiglitz (eds) (2007). Escaping the Resource Curse, New York: Columbia University Press Isham, Jonathan, Michael Woolcock, Lant

in History, historians and development policy