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Heikki Patomäki

Introduction Kosovo is not a security issue for Europe only: it must be seen in the context of global political processes. In this chapter, I argue that Kosovo was an episode in the long-term process of the domestication and marginalisation of the United Nations (UN) by the United States. These relations of domination are underpinned by Manichean dichotomous myths of good

in Mapping European security after Kosovo

In the story of post-Cold War conceptual confusion, the war in and over Kosovo stands out as a particularly interesting episode. This book provides new and stimulating perspectives on how Kosovo has shaped the new Europe. It breaks down traditional assumptions in the field of security studies by sidelining the theoretical worldview that underlies mainstream strategic thinking on recent events in Kosovo. The book offers a conceptual overview of the Kosovo debate, placing these events in the context of globalisation, European integration and the discourse of modernity and its aftermath. It then examines Kosovo's impact on the idea of war. One of the great paradoxes of the war in Kosovo was that it was not just one campaign but two: there was the ethnic cleansing campaign in Kosovo and the allied bombing campaign against targets in Kosovo and all over Serbia. Serbia's killing of Kosovo has set the parameters of the Balkanisation-integration nexus, offering 'Europe' (and the West in general) a unique opportunity to suggest itself as the strong centre that keeps the margins from running away. Next, it investigates 'Kosovo' as a product of the decay of modern institutions and discourses like sovereignty, statehood, the warring state or the United Nations system. 'Kosovo' has introduced new overtones into the European Weltanschauung and the ways in which 'Europe' asserts itself as an independent power discourse in a globalising world: increasingly diffident, looking for firm foundations in the conceptual void of the turn of the century.

Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

activities to the DPRK, which has varied depending on the political climate. In recent years, the international humanitarian system has been subject to restrictions in the form of unilateral and United Nations Security Council (UNSC) sanctions. As of 2017, Americans must also apply for US government permission for DPRK travel. This paper goes beyond the policy of sanctions exemptions and asks how sanctions are affecting humanitarian work in practice. The following subsection reviews the methodology used in the research. A literature review rounds out the introduction

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

Relief Assistance of the United Nations, Including Special Economic Assistance: Strengthening of the Coordination of Emergency Humanitarian Assistance of the United Nations , https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Secretary-General%27s%20Report%20for%20WHS%202016%20%28Advance%20Unedited%20Draft%29.pdf (accessed 20 October 2016) . Knox Clarke , P. and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Learning from the case of Kosovo
Jenny H. Peterson

(ICG,1999c; interview with international staff, 2006). The bombardment ended on 10 June after a negotiated withdrawal of Serbian forces from the territory. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 left a United Nations administration (the United Nations Mission in Kosovo – UNMIK) in control of Kosovo pending the resolution of final status. Over 42,000 NATO troops formed a peacekeeping force (KFOR). Serbia, de jure, retained its sovereignty over the territory and thus, technically, Kosovo remained part of the Serbian state. The growth of Kosovo’s war economy Beginning with

in Building a peace economy?
Managing the criminal facets of war economies
Jenny H. Peterson

laws might be considered discriminatory (Strohmeyer, 2001a). Much more problematic, however, was that Albanian jurists rebelled against having to employ a set of laws they considered to be Serbian. ‘Yugoslav criminal laws, in particular, were considered to have been one of the most potent tools of a decade-long policy of discrimination against and repression of the Kosovan Albanian population. The political representatives of the Kosovan Albanian community thus threatened to cease cooperating with the United Nations’ (Strohmeyer, 2001a: 58–59). UNMIK eventually

in Building a peace economy?
Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

seize or retain power), but also as a means for moving towards a positive peace economy insofar as it was meant to literally spread the wealth amongst citizens. Another option in the transformation toolbox includes formal political and economic sanctions. For example, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) introduced sanctions in 2000 which prohibited the importation of rough diamonds from Sierra Leone by all member states (UNSC Resolution 1306/2000). This was done in an attempt to curtail a dominant source of funding for the Revolutionary United Front (RUF

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

‘other’ ( Fast, 2016 : 114). The principle of impartiality, also vital to humanitarian action, can also be challenged by cultures who may have diverging ideas of who deserves relief, as it was the case in Darfur ( De Waal, 1989 : chapter 8). Humanitarianism is also a culture committed to gender equality, not only in its operations (e.g. IASC, 2017 ) but also internally (e.g. United Nations, 2017 ). Thus, its

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Rethinking Digital Divides by Linda Leung
Antonio Díaz Andrade

an invitation to explore the interplay between refugees and digital technology in the face of scarce literature on the topic when Leung conducted her research (by the time the book was published, substantial research on the matter was available). Following this invitation, the author elaborates on what constitutes a refugee, a legal status that is often contingent on an assessment by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the host country. Through several examples, Leung debunks the myth

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

Freedoms, set out in 1941, provided particularly American inspiration for the post-war development of liberal global governance. 1 But the principles of great-power trusteeship and balancing, reflected in the Dumbarton Oaks proposals in 1944, were decisive in the creation of the United Nations. 2 Despite the early proliferation of liberal institutions under the aegis of the UN, Cold War prerogatives undermined cosmopolitan aspirations for world government. Cancelling each other out in the Security Council, the US and the Soviet Union

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs