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The quest for the right to science
Marco Cappato

, as well as legal restrictions, seem to change dramatically if, instead of seeking a cure, the ‘alteration’ of our consciousness is done just for the sake of it. This chapter will focus mainly upon the prohibition of narcotics and other psychoactive substances, and its impact on science. I will discuss how international organisations, particularly the United Nations, have intervened over the years to regulate and control the use and distribution of psychoactive substances. There are three main international conventions that deal with psychoactive substances. The

in The freedom of scientific research
From theory to advocacy
Andrea Boggio and Cesare P. R. Romano

remedy to victims of violations in specific cases and cause the development of a body of opinions and other policy outcomes which can contribute, with authority, to defining the content of the right. In the first part of this chapter, we map out the recognition of the right to science under international law, both at the global and regional level. We then look at important international developments, and in particular, the work of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Cultural Rights, and the emergence of an academic debate on the right to science. We then turn to

in The freedom of scientific research
Catherine Rhodes

otherwise acquire or retain: (1) Microbial or other biological agents or toxins, whatever their origin or method of production, of types or in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes. (United Nations Biological Weapons Convention 1972) Notably, the Convention does not seek to restrict use of biological agents and toxins for peaceful purposes; it explicitly encourages participation and international cooperation for such purposes, particularly including the prevention of disease: (1) The States Parties to this

in The freedom of scientific research
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

doing something salutary in a humanitarian crisis if the United Nations Security Council is paralysed and abuse in the name of humanitarianism by intervening states. Most liberals opt for saving lives 5 and for intervening, exceptionally, even without the authorization of the United Nations, provided the intervention has gained wide international legitimacy and the plight is so appalling that the interest in global humanity overrides narrowly defined national interest

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Racism, immigration and the state
Steve Loyal

consequence of the labour market dynamism of the Celtic Tiger; a narrative of ethnic and national identity inherited from the process of state formation before and after independence; within the field of international relations, a commitment to constitutional liberalism and the rule of law – this expresses itself in support for the United Nations and the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Migration in Ireland The two central pieces of legislation which currently shape Irish immigration policy are the 1996 Refugee Act (which was not fully passed until

in The end of Irish history?
Open Access (free)
Conceptual and ethodological challenges for comparative analysis
Agnieszka Piasna, Brendan Burchell, Kirsten Sehnbruch and Nurjk Agloni

influenced by the ILO’s approach, the European Union (EU) institutions – such as Eurofound (see, e.g., Green and Mostafa, 2012) – and some European governments stand out. Another example is an initiative that originated in 2000 as a series of seminars launched by the joint United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)/ILO/Eurostat task force, which after 15 long years published a statistical framework for measuring the quality of employment (UNECE, 2015). The framework, however, was developed as a complex statistical toolbox rather than an indicator suitable for

in Making work more equal
A critical reassessment
Denis O’Hearn

1990s. Moreover, by some absolute as well as relative measures, eih ch-2.P65 47 26/3/03, 15:07 48 O’Hearn poverty increased along with inequality. By the end of the century, according to the United Nations’ Human Development Report, the Irish poverty rate, as measured by its Human Poverty Index, was the highest in the EU.31 This rising level of inequality and relative poverty during a period of rapid growth was not effectively countered by state policies, as one can clearly see in macroeconomic terms by the shares of GDP shifting towards capital and away from

in The end of Irish history?
Open Access (free)
Simona Giordano

and 2017, repeatedly denounced to the United Nations the repressive policies adopted in the Philippines by Rodrigo Duterte, under the guise of the ‘war on drugs’. As may be known, the anti-drug hard line taken by Duterte hits the poorest sections of society, Conclusion 229 and has resulted in the killing of over 8,000 people. Representatives of the World Congress participated and presented evidence at the 60th session of the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs held in Vienna in March 2017, also in support of the vice-president of the Philippines, Maria Leonor Giorna

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
Warfare, politics and religion after the Habsburg Empire in the Julian March, 1930s– 1970s
Gaetano Dato

 turbulent post-​war period ensued. Until 1947 it was known as the Allied Military Government of Venezia Giulia, divided into Zone A, under British–​American control, and Zone B under the Yugoslavian army. Subsequently, for seven years, the two fiduciary forces controlled the smaller Free Territory of Trieste (FTT); this was the failed project of a buffer state directly controlled by the United Nations, in view of a Roosevelt-​inspired Federation of the World that never took off.3 With the London Memorandum in 1954, the Italian republic and Tito’s Yugoslavia found a t

in Human remains in society
Curse or blessing?
Simona Giordano

raised awareness of the need to protect older members of society from abuse and discrimination. One of the first documents on the rights of the older person was the Brasilia Declaration on Ageing (WHO 1996). One of the most recent was the Declaration of Rights for Older People in Wales (2014), and the United Nations is calling for a legally binding convention on the rights of older people (Office of the High Commissioner for Human 50 Freedom of science: promises and hazards Rights 2014). Virtually all declarations and conventions on human rights contain statements

in The freedom of scientific research