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Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

activities to the DPRK, which has varied depending on the political climate. In recent years, the international humanitarian system has been subject to restrictions in the form of unilateral and United Nations Security Council (UNSC) sanctions. As of 2017, Americans must also apply for US government permission for DPRK travel. This paper goes beyond the policy of sanctions exemptions and asks how sanctions are affecting humanitarian work in practice. The following subsection reviews the methodology used in the research. A literature review rounds out the introduction

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

Relief Assistance of the United Nations, Including Special Economic Assistance: Strengthening of the Coordination of Emergency Humanitarian Assistance of the United Nations , (accessed 20 October 2016) . Knox Clarke , P. and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

‘other’ ( Fast, 2016 : 114). The principle of impartiality, also vital to humanitarian action, can also be challenged by cultures who may have diverging ideas of who deserves relief, as it was the case in Darfur ( De Waal, 1989 : chapter 8). Humanitarianism is also a culture committed to gender equality, not only in its operations (e.g. IASC, 2017 ) but also internally (e.g. United Nations, 2017 ). Thus, its

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Rethinking Digital Divides by Linda Leung
Antonio Díaz Andrade

an invitation to explore the interplay between refugees and digital technology in the face of scarce literature on the topic when Leung conducted her research (by the time the book was published, substantial research on the matter was available). Following this invitation, the author elaborates on what constitutes a refugee, a legal status that is often contingent on an assessment by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the host country. Through several examples, Leung debunks the myth

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

Freedoms, set out in 1941, provided particularly American inspiration for the post-war development of liberal global governance. 1 But the principles of great-power trusteeship and balancing, reflected in the Dumbarton Oaks proposals in 1944, were decisive in the creation of the United Nations. 2 Despite the early proliferation of liberal institutions under the aegis of the UN, Cold War prerogatives undermined cosmopolitan aspirations for world government. Cancelling each other out in the Security Council, the US and the Soviet Union

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Catherine Akurut

. It is for these reasons and others – ranging from the lack of knowledge, victim-blaming and, in some countries, the fear of prosecution as male victims might find themselves in predicaments where humanitarian service providers accuse them of being homosexual ( RLP, 2013 : 31) – that male victims fail to report CRSV. Having to prove their heterosexuality to service providers makes silence about experiences inevitable ( Office of the United Nations Special Representative of the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editors’ Introduction
Tanja R. Müller and Gemma Sou

new financial model, then humanitarian innovation will be on life support from institutional donors indefinitely. Bibliography Bloom , L. and Faulkner , R. ( 2016 ), ‘ Innovation Spaces: Lessons from the United Nations’ , Third World Quarterly , 37 : 8 , 1371 – 8 , doi: 10

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

). Bauman , Z. ( 2000 ), Liquid Modernity ( Cambridge : Polity Press ). Becker , K. F. ( 2004 ), The Informal Economy: Fact Finding Study ( Stockholm : Sida ). Betts , A. and Bloom , L . ( 2014 ), ‘ Humanitarian Innovation: The State of the Art ’, in OCHA Policy and Studies Series ( New York : United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs ). Boltanski , L. and Chiapello , E . ( 2005 ), The New Spirit of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Logan Cochrane

’s Human Development Index were missing as of 2018. On the latter, as far as we are aware, no documents have brought together lessons from multiple donors and NGOs, and thus learning has remained donor-specific or project-based. A further challenge, as evidenced in the evaluations analysed in this study, is that actors have yet to act upon lessons they have learned, suggesting that other barriers need to be overcome in implementation. As of 2018, there were 194 organisations registered with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

could have been stopped. Policymakers in France, Belgium, and the United States and at the United Nations all knew of the preparations for massive slaughter and failed to take the steps needed to prevent it. Aware from the start that Tutsi were being targeted for elimination, the leading foreign actors refused to acknowledge the genocide.… When international leaders did finally voice disapproval, the genocidal authorities listened well enough to change their tactics although not their ultimate goal. Far from cause for satisfaction, this small success only

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs