In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.
began to take shape. It is also within this new model that the
concept of autism was adopted widely as a global category and an
international model for thinking about individual children’s
In the same year that the Children’s Act was
passed in Britain, the UnitedNations issued a Convention on the
Rights of the Child. The 1989 Convention was unanimously
Guerrilla nursing with the Friends Ambulance Unit, 1946–48
buildings whose Western personnel had been forced to withdraw during the Japanese occupation meant negotiating their handover from
the Japanese and securing funding and supplies abroad and from the
warring Chinese Nationalist and Communist relief agencies operating within the fledgling UnitedNations Relief and Rehabilitation
Administration (UNRRA). It required recruiting and reorganising
staff, and rebuilding nursing programmes from the ground up – all
complicated by runaway inflation, civil war and the thousands of
returning destitute refugees.
By March, the hospital
Biologics and Reagents, which became virtually the sole producer of biological
products in the country.
In the late 1980s, Mexico was the only Latin American country to
produce all of the vaccines included in the UnitedNations Children's Fund
(UNICEF) Extended Vaccination Programme (tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis,
tetanus, poliomyelitis and measles), as well as human and canine rabies and
typhoid fever vaccines, and others
-century studies of homeostasis, nascent ecological formulations of the relationship between animals, societies and the environment, and UnitedNations and WHO initiatives to protect the biosphere collectively reinvigorated debates about the balance of nature and its translation into the social sphere.
By reconstituting beliefs in the potential for ecological and social systems to maintain functional stability, proponents of the Gaia hypothesis were endeavouring to restore a sense of order and control to a world that
worked for Naval Intelligence,
boarding ships and assisting with searches for contraband.113 In later
life, she worked in a variety of postings with the UnitedNations Relief
and Rehabilitation Association, in Egypt, Italy, Austria, and Serbia.
A fervent Catholic (having converted soon after the First World War),
she worked with displaced persons on a Catholic Relief Programme.
Following her eventual retirement (which came rather late in life) she
returned to Cornwall, where she spent her time spinning, weaving,
and writing novels.
Violetta Thurstan died on 13 April