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Transnational dynamics in post-genocidal restitutions

Taking its starting point from a socio-anthropological study combining biographical interviews, semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations collected between 2016 and 2018 in Germany, France and the United States among Ovaherero and Nama activists, and also members of different institutions and associations, this article focuses on the question of human remains in the current struggle for recognition and reparation of the genocide of the Ovaherero and Nama from a transnational perspective. First, the text shows the ways in which the memory of human remains can be considered as a driving force in the struggle of the affected communities. Second, it outlines the main points of mismatches of perspective between descendants of the survivors and the responsible museums during past restitutions of human remains from German anthropological collections. Third, the article more closely examines the resources of Ovaherero in the United States in the struggle for recognition and reparation, the recent discovery of Namibian human remains in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and the questions that it raises.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal

US$1,100 million and generated 14 per cent of Albanian gross domestic product (GDP) (Vullnetari and King 2011: 55). In 2009, due to the economic crisis across Europe and the United States, the scale of remittances decreased to 9 per cent of GDP in Albania (2011: 55). Still, in the same period, they were three times greater than the value of foreign exports and covered a relatively large part of the trading deficit (2011: 55). In Dhërmi/Drimades the material flows are part of reciprocal exchange and constitute affective transnationalism where personal and emotional

in Migrating borders and moving times
Open Access (free)
A war of extermination, grave looting, and culture wars in the American West

? At the 2013 conference, we asked, what do practices of exhumation of victims of mass destruction tell us about larger political, social, and cultural issues? What does it mean to turn a critical eye on agents of justice, on ourselves? Introduction I have lived in the United States, mostly in Berkeley, since I left Manchester, UK, in 1963. And for almost forty of those years I have been lucky to own a share of a vacation cabin in northwest California in a wondrous place called Big Lagoon, a coastal village surrounded by ocean, lagoon, and forest. The area is

in Human remains and identification
Open Access (free)
Or how to make the Armenian corpses disappear

for the history of genocide, P.J.1/3, Bundle 14, Konya, which presents the evidence of people originating from Akşehir, drafted at Aleppo on 23 February 1919, fo. 2v. Report dated 8 November 1915, cited in Lepsius, Archives du génocide, p. 164. US National Archives, State Department, Record Group 59, 867.4016/373, report of 4 March 1918, published in A. Sarafian (ed.), United States Official Documents on the Armenian Genocide (Princeton: Gomidas Institute, 2004), vol. 1, p. 146. Yervant Odian was a humourist and journalist well known in Istanbul. He just escaped the

in Destruction and human remains

antecedent for understanding violence in this region was the foreign policy of the United States in Latin America, which considered the region to be its ‘backyard’. During the twentieth century the United States developed a geopolitical approach based on an interest in the strategic value of certain places (Panama) and, above all, of a wide range of natural resources. During the Cold War and following the Cuban Revolution this process was accompanied by a military presence on the ground, and often the training of army officers and local police forces. Larger numbers of

in Human remains and identification
Open Access (free)
Mass violence, corpses, and the Nazi imagination of the East

their attempts to reorder the landscape and bend its people to their colonial vision. Notes  1 Generalkommissariat Weissruthenia was the German administrative designation for the area of what is now Belarus. Between 1941 and 1944 it was part of the larger Reichskommissariat Ostland, which encompassed the present-day Baltic states, in addition to Weissruthenia.  2 United States Holocaust Memorial Archive (USHMMA), RG 22.001, Fiche 3, Folder 21.1.  3 Ibid. DHR.indb 81 5/15/2014 12:51:10 PM 82  Michael McConnell  4 A. Confino, ‘Fantasies about the Jews

in Destruction and human remains
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Portraying the exhumation and reburial of Polish Jewish Holocaust victims in the pages of yizkor books

of former Jewish residents were active in Israel, the United States, Brazil, and Argentina.5 The concluding section of the Żelechów yizkor book includes an account by Shmuel Laksman, a religious survivor from Żelechów Polish Jewish Holocaust victims in yizkor books   37 who single-handedly initiated the exhumation and reburial of Jewish Holocaust victims in his region. Resettled in Israel, Laksman describes in the yizkor book the threat posed to the few Jews who returned temporarily to Żelechów by their Polish neighbours, who were displeased to see them

in Human remains and identification
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The daily work of Erich Muhsfeldt, chief of the crematorium at Majdanek concentration and extermination camp, 1942–44

and Professionalization in England, Germany, Russia and the United States (Stuttgart: Klett Kotta, 1983), p. 29. H. Buchheim, ‘Befehl und Gehorsam’ (‘Command and obedience’), in H. Buchheim, M. Broszat, H.-A. Jacobsen & H. Krausnick (eds), Anatomie des SS-Staates (Anatomy of the SS State) (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1999), pp. 215–320, at p. 242. A. Lüdtke, ‘“Die Fiktion der Institution”. Herrschaftspraxis und Vernichtung der europäischen Juden im 20. Jahrhundert’ (‘“The fiction of the institution”. Ruling practice and extermination of European Jews in

in Destruction and human remains
Open Access (free)
The politics of exhumation in post-genocide Rwanda

brought to the idea of the Holocaust’s omnipresence with regard to memory models. Listen to the audio podcast ‘Uncovering the evidence’, in Voices on Genocide Prevention (Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2009). It is not possible here to describe in more detail the importance of the voluminous report (700 pages long) published following this investigation. It nonetheless constituted the main piece of evidence used in the trial of Clément Kayishema. O. Adede, ‘Statement of the registrar of the international criminal tribunal for Rwanda, Ictr

in Human remains and identification
Integrative concepts for a criminology of mass violence

:5 (1949), pp. 553–64. N. N. Kittrie, ‘A post mortem of the Eichmann case – the lessons for international law’, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 55:2 (1964), pp. 16–28. For example, T. Platt, ‘Prospects for a radical criminology in the United States’, Crime and Social Justice, 1 (1974), pp. 2–10. For example, W. S. Laufer, ‘The forgotten crime of genocide’, in W. S. Laufer & A. Adler (eds), Advances in Criminological Theory, Volume 8: The Criminology of Criminal Law (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1999), pp. 71–82; L. E. Day & M. Vandiver, ‘Crimin

in Human remains and mass violence