Transnational dynamics in post-genocidal restitutions
Taking its starting point from a socio-anthropological study combining
biographical interviews, semi-structured interviews and ethnographic
observations collected between 2016 and 2018 in Germany, France and the United
States among Ovaherero and Nama activists, and also members of different
institutions and associations, this article focuses on the question of human
remains in the current struggle for recognition and reparation of the genocide
of the Ovaherero and Nama from a transnational perspective. First, the text
shows the ways in which the memory of human remains can be considered as a
driving force in the struggle of the affected communities. Second, it outlines
the main points of mismatches of perspective between descendants of the
survivors and the responsible museums during past restitutions of human remains
from German anthropological collections. Third, the article more closely
examines the resources of Ovaherero in the United States in the struggle for
recognition and reparation, the recent discovery of Namibian human remains in
the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and the questions that
US$1,100 million and generated 14 per cent of Albanian gross domestic product
(GDP) (Vullnetari and King 2011: 55). In 2009, due to the economic crisis across
Europe and the UnitedStates, the scale of remittances decreased to 9 per cent of
GDP in Albania (2011: 55). Still, in the same period, they were three times greater
than the value of foreign exports and covered a relatively large part of the trading
deficit (2011: 55).
In Dhërmi/Drimades the material flows are part of reciprocal exchange and constitute affective transnationalism where personal and emotional
A war of extermination, grave looting, and culture wars in the American West
? At the 2013 conference, we asked, what do practices
of exhumation of victims of mass destruction tell us about larger political, social, and cultural issues? What does it mean to turn a critical
eye on agents of justice, on ourselves?
I have lived in the UnitedStates, mostly in Berkeley, since I left
Manchester, UK, in 1963. And for almost forty of those years I have
been lucky to own a share of a vacation cabin in northwest California
in a wondrous place called Big Lagoon, a coastal village surrounded
by ocean, lagoon, and forest. The area is
for the history of genocide, P.J.1/3,
Bundle 14, Konya, which presents the evidence of people originating
from Akşehir, drafted at Aleppo on 23 February 1919, fo. 2v.
Report dated 8 November 1915, cited in Lepsius, Archives du génocide,
US National Archives, State Department, Record Group 59,
867.4016/373, report of 4 March 1918, published in A. Sarafian (ed.),
UnitedStates Official Documents on the Armenian Genocide (Princeton:
Gomidas Institute, 2004), vol. 1, p. 146.
Yervant Odian was a humourist and journalist well known in Istanbul.
He just escaped the
understanding violence in this region was the foreign policy of the
UnitedStates in Latin America, which considered the region to be its
‘backyard’. During the twentieth century the UnitedStates developed
a geopolitical approach based on an interest in the strategic value of
certain places (Panama) and, above all, of a wide range of natural
resources. During the Cold War and following the Cuban Revolution
this process was accompanied by a military presence on the ground,
and often the training of army officers and local police forces.
Larger numbers of
Mass violence, corpses, and the Nazi imagination of the East
their attempts to reorder the landscape and bend
its people to their colonial vision.
Weissruthenia was the German administrative
designation for the area of what is now Belarus. Between 1941 and
1944 it was part of the larger Reichskommissariat Ostland, which
encompassed the present-day Baltic states, in addition to Weissruthenia.
2 UnitedStates Holocaust Memorial Archive (USHMMA), RG 22.001,
Fiche 3, Folder 21.1.
5/15/2014 12:51:10 PM
82 Michael McConnell
Confino, ‘Fantasies about the Jews
Portraying the exhumation and reburial of Polish Jewish Holocaust victims in the pages of yizkor books
Gabriel N. Finder
Jewish residents were active in Israel, the UnitedStates, Brazil, and
The concluding section of the Żelechów yizkor book includes an
account by Shmuel Laksman, a religious survivor from Żelechów
Polish Jewish Holocaust victims in yizkor books 37
who single-handedly initiated the exhumation and reburial of
Jewish Holocaust victims in his region. Resettled in Israel, Laksman
describes in the yizkor book the threat posed to the few Jews who
returned temporarily to Żelechów by their Polish neighbours, who
were displeased to see them
The daily work of Erich Muhsfeldt, chief of the crematorium at Majdanek concentration and extermination camp, 1942–44
Professionalization in England, Germany, Russia and the UnitedStates
(Stuttgart: Klett Kotta, 1983), p. 29.
H. Buchheim, ‘Befehl und Gehorsam’ (‘Command and obedience’),
in H. Buchheim, M. Broszat, H.-A. Jacobsen & H. Krausnick (eds),
Anatomie des SS-Staates (Anatomy of the SS State) (Munich: Deutscher
Taschenbuch Verlag, 1999), pp. 215–320, at p. 242.
A. Lüdtke, ‘“Die Fiktion der Institution”. Herrschaftspraxis und
Vernichtung der europäischen Juden im 20. Jahrhundert’ (‘“The fiction
of the institution”. Ruling practice and extermination of European Jews
The politics of exhumation in post-genocide Rwanda
to the idea of the Holocaust’s omnipresence with regard to memory
Listen to the audio podcast ‘Uncovering the evidence’, in Voices on
Genocide Prevention (Washington, DC: UnitedStates Holocaust
Memorial Museum, 2009).
It is not possible here to describe in more detail the importance of the
voluminous report (700 pages long) published following this investigation. It nonetheless constituted the main piece of evidence used in the
trial of Clément Kayishema.
O. Adede, ‘Statement of the registrar of the international criminal tribunal for Rwanda, Ictr
Integrative concepts for a criminology of mass violence
:5 (1949), pp. 553–64.
N. N. Kittrie, ‘A post mortem of the Eichmann case – the lessons for
international law’, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 55:2
(1964), pp. 16–28.
For example, T. Platt, ‘Prospects for a radical criminology in the UnitedStates’, Crime and Social Justice, 1 (1974), pp. 2–10.
For example, W. S. Laufer, ‘The forgotten crime of genocide’, in W. S.
Laufer & A. Adler (eds), Advances in Criminological Theory, Volume
8: The Criminology of Criminal Law (New Brunswick: Transaction
Publishers, 1999), pp. 71–82; L. E. Day & M. Vandiver, ‘Crimin