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Introduction This strategy is guided by principled realism. It is realist because it acknowledges the central role of power in international politics, affirms that sovereign states are the best hope for a peaceful world, and clearly defines our national interests… We are also realistic and understand that the American way of life cannot be imposed upon others, nor is it the inevitable culmination of progress . The White House, ‘National Security Strategy of the United States of America’ ( The White House, 2017 ) The White House published the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

we met during discussions within MSF about its kidnapping policy. 7 In reality, this policy is impractical and ineffective. Even governments that insist they ‘never negotiate with terrorists’, such as Russia, the United States and Israel, cannot consistently adhere to this policy due to the political costs involved (sacrificing hostages) and the low, long-term chances of success. For a bibliographic review and an analysis based on mathematical game-theory models to demonstrate that a no-negotiations policy has a poor chance of succeeding, see Bapat (2006 : 213

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles

difficult it was to apply IHL long before what are now described as its more serious and frequent contemporary violations. Humanitarian law is part of a long-established normative framework – the distinction between combatants and non-combatants was theorised by Enlightenment philosophers and legal experts (Grotius, Rousseau and Vatel, most notably). The safeguards granted to prisoners of war by the 1929 Convention were already a part of the 1785 Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Prussia and the United States, and long before the humanitarian conventions were

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction

University Press ). Moyn , S. ( 2014 ), Human Rights and the Uses of History ( London : Verso ). Polanyi , K. ( 1957 ), The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time ( Boston : Beacon Press ). White House ( 2017 ), National Security Strategy of the United States of America , https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf , first published online 18 December 2017 .

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

intervention. In 2011, a Samaritan’s Purse employee sued her organisation in the United States after being kidnapped in Darfur the previous year. The first such case in Europe happened in 2015, when Steve Dennis sued the Norwegian Refugee Council after he was kidnapped in Kenya. In France, the Karachi case (an attack in which Naval Group employees were killed) demonstrated the potential legal risk from criminal or terrorist actions. The courts stated that Naval Group should have anticipated the risk and taken appropriate measures to ensure that the attack did not happen: By

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

Consultation Process for World Humanitarian Summit ’, www.agendaforhumanity.org/sites/default/files/resources/2017/Jul/Restoring_Humanity_Synthesis_of_the_Consultation_Process_for_the_World_Humanitarian_Summit.pdf (accessed 9 September 2018 ). Whitman , J. Q. ( 2017 ), Hitler’s American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law ( Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press ).

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

mostly focuses on trends in the absolute numbers of attacks, comparing them across time and across country operating contexts. 3 To the extent that comparisons are made based on estimates of the rates of attacks on aid workers, these comparisons are with on-the-job death rates in hazardous civilian professions in the United States ( Stoddard et al. , 2006 : 4). Comparisons are not made with the risks faced by the wider civilian population. More generally, we know that civilian-protection activities are often targeted based on standardised categories of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local

Emergency Appeal for Syria, Gaza and the West Bank ’, www.unrwa.org/newsroom/press-releases/unrwa-launches-us-800-million-emergency-appeal-syria-gaza-and-west-bank (accessed 2 May 2018 ). UNRWA ( 2018b ), Health Department: Annual Report 2017 ( Amman : UNRWA ). UNRWA ( 2018c ), ‘ Pledges to UNRWA’s Programmes (Cash and In-kind) – Overall Donor Ranking as 31 December 2017 ’, www.unrwa.org/sites/default/files/overalldonor_ranking.pdf (accessed 10 May 2018 ). UNRWA ( n.d.a ), ‘ United States: A Long

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

2504Chap13 7/4/03 12:42 pm Page 247 13 Reflections on Eurasian security David P. Calleo It seems an especially appropriate moment for American scholars to consider the long-term issues of Eurasian security. At this time, of course, it is not easy to have a long-term vision of anything. Since the atrocities of September 11 2001, the world seems to have changed for us in fundamental ways. Old trends, therefore, may no longer apply. It is not true, however, that the hatred of the United States that exploded on September 11 began on that same day. Indeed, even

in Limiting institutions?

2504Chap6 7/4/03 12:40 pm Page 105 6 The geopolitics of Central Asian energy Jaewoo Choo This chapter assesses the rising geostrategic and geoeconomic importance of Central Asian oil and natural gas for China and the United States – the most transparent source of Sino-American conflict in this region. The initial rationale for Chinese engagement in Central Asia, despite the emergence of China as a net oil-importing nation in 1993, was not driven by the search for an alternative and secure source of oil and natural gas.1 Rather, Chinese policy reflected a

in Limiting institutions?