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-sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Hastings Center and the Royal Society of Medicine.28 During a planning meeting, members of the British organising committee, which included Gordon Dunstan and Sir Douglas Black, had suggested that an ‘interesting and fruitful’ approach would be to look at ‘topics that reveal differences between 260 The making of British bioethics the UK and USA’.29 Staff at the Hastings Center claimed that discussing the ‘marked differences’ between Britain and the United States would ‘foster an understanding and mutual appreciation for

in The making of British bioethics

United States of America into the war in April 1917, although numerous trained American nurses offered their services to the French and Belgian Red Cross Societies and were engaged in ‘front-line nursing’ from 1914 onwards, and a small number of ‘official’ American units also travelled to France. Members of the army nursing corps of allied nations saw themselves as belonging to elite units. Trained in the most prestigious nursing schools of their day, they carried with them a remarkable degree of confidence and self-belief, and their achievements were eagerly reported

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
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Vaccine policy and production in Japan

virtually unmodified (Table 8.1 ). Table 8.1 Vaccine schedules in Japan and the United States, 2011 Japan United States Diphtheria Diphtheria Pertussis Pertussis Tetanus Tetanus Polio (OPV) Polio (IPV) Measles Measles Rubella (offered only to adolescent girls before 1994) Mumps Japanese encephalitis Rubella BCG Hepatitis B

in The politics of vaccination
Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s

academic lawyer Ian Kennedy. Since the late 1960s, Kennedy has written on medical definitions of death and mental illness, euthanasia, the doctor–patient relationship and the rights of AIDS patients. In line with the ‘hands-off’ approach of lawyers, Kennedy’s early work stressed that decisions should rest solely with the medical profession; but this stance changed after he encountered bioethics during a spell in the United States. In 1980 Kennedy used the prestigious BBC Reith Lectures to endorse the approach that he explicitly labelled ‘bioethics’, critiquing

in The making of British bioethics

than half of its territory to the United States – as well as indigenous groups’ insurrections and struggles between liberals and conservatives. For all these reasons, in this period at least fifty smallpox epidemics occurred in the country. 7 The beginning of vaccine production A relative pacification of the country arrived with the authoritarian regime of Porfirio Díaz (1876

in The politics of vaccination

criticise procedures such as IVF and did not seek to involve themselves in medical decision-making. They also believed that the new ‘transdisciplinary’ societies and journals should be considered as medical bodies and should work to ‘safeguard the doctor’s role’.3 This stance ensured that while discussion of medical ethics increasingly involved professions other than doctors, it was still undertaken primarily for their benefit. Interdisciplinary debates in Britain consequently differed from those that were termed ‘bioethics’ in the United States, where outsiders publicly

in The making of British bioethics
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, and specific campaigns to vaccinate young adults to protect them from the disease. It is clear from contemporary media coverage and internal government files that the British people wanted protection from polio. As in many Western countries, large charities solicited donations to polio research and care and there was extensive interest in the massive field trials of a new vaccine being developed in the United States in 1954 and 1955. 1 Even when the vaccine became available, many of these charities continued to provide aftercare and support

in Vaccinating Britain
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30

6 Working towards health, Christianity and democracy: American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–301 Winifred C. Connerton At the turn of the twentieth century American nurses went to Puerto Rico as members of the Army Nurse Corps, as colonial service workers and as Protestant missionaries. Though the nurses went as members of very different organisations they all espoused similar messages about America, Christianity and trained nursing. This chapter explores the overlapping messages of Protestant missionaries and of the United States (US

in Colonial caring
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, coupled with the establishment of centres such as the Georgetown Institute and an Institute for Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences, later renamed the Hastings Center, led many to view bioethics as an important approach. By 1978, as David Rothman remarks, it was clear ‘that the monopoly of the medical profession in medical ethics was over. The issues were now public and national – the province of an extraordinary variety of outsiders.’15 Contextualising bioethics Although bioethics first emerged in the United States, the term and the approach it signifies quickly

in The making of British bioethics
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paragon of Western medicine and Western life and as such she was expected to play a significant role in bringing these virtues to those less fortunate. In some circumstances, the nurses attempted to blend with local norms and practices, but in others, they simply ignored and trampled them. When Puerto Rico became a United States colony, the US overtly aimed to radically alter local society by Americanising the government, education and healthcare on the island. Nurses came to Puerto Rico with the goal of rewriting the role of women in civic and professional society

in Colonial caring