-sponsored by the New York
Academy of Sciences, the Hastings Center and the Royal Society
of Medicine.28 During a planning meeting, members of the British
organising committee, which included Gordon Dunstan and Sir
Douglas Black, had suggested that an ‘interesting and fruitful’
approach would be to look at ‘topics that reveal differences between
The making of British bioethics
the UK and USA’.29 Staff at the Hastings Center claimed that discussing the ‘marked differences’ between Britain and the UnitedStates would ‘foster an understanding and mutual appreciation
Dr Williams’ Pink Pills for Pale People and the hybrid pathways of Chinese
tale also suggests the ubiquity and pervasiveness of the product to which it alludes.
In real life, Dr Williams’ Pink Pills for Pale People never languished in the sea but made it across several oceans. This chapter examines advertisements for the product in Chinese-language publications in Shanghai during the early twentieth century, comparing them to English-language advertisements printed in Shanghai, England, and the UnitedStates. Much like the telephone poles that refuse to be silenced, the long advertising history of Dr Williams’ Pink Pills
Cancer, modernity, and decline in fin-de-siècle Britain
, and ‘nearly trebled’ in the UnitedStates. Writing in the fin de siècle , Hutchinson argued that cancer was among ‘our oldest, deadliest, and most-studied diseases’, while at the same time positioning it as an unintended consequence of Victorian civilisation and progress. He presciently posed cancer as ‘the riddle of the Sphinx for the twentieth century’.
It is a well-known and often rehashed trope that cancer today constitutes an unintended consequence of modernity. Or, as
Spurzheim and Combe brought practical phrenology, with its promise of personal and social betterment, to the UnitedStates in the 1820s, where it soon became even more popular under the Fowlers.
The Fowlers’ practical phrenology
The Fowler family – led by the brothers Orson and Lorenzo, their sister Charlotte, and her husband, Samuel Wells – were among the first fully to exploit the potential of phrenology as practical self-help (or ‘self-culture’). Their motto was ‘self-made or
Divorces in the UnitedStates, 1867–1967 (Source: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 100 years of Marriage and Divorce Statistics: UnitedStates, 1867–1967 (Rockville, MD: Health Resource Administration, HRA 74-1902, 1973), p. 8
Divorce was also linked to the manner in which partnerships were supposedly being weakened by the ‘atomistic tendencies of modern life’,
most notably ‘the propensity to regard the assertion
Visualising obesity as a public health concern in 1970s and 1980s
associated diseases such as heart disease, hypertension and diabetes.
In this respect Britain was not unique but rather part of the wider international proliferation of chronic disease in the post-war period.
Various scientific studies, especially the Framingham Heart Study in the UnitedStates and the Seven Countries study, suggested a strong correlation between diets high in saturated fat and the increased incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD
international competitors such as Germany and the UnitedStates – bodily exhaustion became a focus for a wide range of anxieties about economic and political decline, cultural stagnation, and the challenges of industrial civilisation. Fatigue took its place alongside those other richly overdetermined fin-de-siècle signifiers – decline, degeneration, and decadence – with which historians of late nineteenth-century Britain are familiar.
Fin-de-siècle discourse was characterised by a powerful homology between the biological and the
Melissa Dickson, Emilie Taylor-Brown and Sally Shuttleworth
Held in a continual state of socio-cultural, economic, and technological flux, the nineteenth-century American citizen was supposedly living in an almost permanent state of nervousness. Furthermore, Beard noted, because America, a ‘young and rapidly growing nation, with civil, religious, and social liberty’, was more advanced in each of these categories than any other nation, it was only natural that nervous exhaustion was more pronounced in the UnitedStates than it was anywhere else
appropriated. In line with the work of historian Jim Secord, this analytical stance lays bare how ‘knowledge-making itself’ is a form of communication, exchange and interaction.
Although relaxation practices proliferated across Europe and the UnitedStates, the geographical focus of this chapter on Britain permits a focused analysis across myriad sources, and brings to the fore a largely undocumented narrative of how and why post-war relaxation ideology and practice paved the way for an expansive stress-management industry
. Wood, ‘Policy emergence and policy convergence: the case of “Scientific-Bureaucratic Medicine” in the UnitedStates and United Kingdom’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations , 4:1 (2002), 1–21; S. Harrison and W. I. U. Ahmad, ‘Medical autonomy and the UK state 1975 to 2025’, Sociology , 34:1 (2000), 129–46; Flynn, ‘Clinical governance and governmentality’, pp. 155–6, 159–60; Kirkpatrick et al., The New Managerialism .
22 R. Klein, ‘The crises of the welfare states’, in R. Cooter and J. Pickstone (eds.), Medicine in the